period from 1917 to 1921 - a really hard time for Russia.Revolution and civil war have been hit hard by the economic well-being.After the end of the alarm events the country needed to be reformed, as the military innovations were helpless in peacetime.
Historical background Proclamation
NEP or New Economic Policy was the need of the time.Crisis "war communism", adopted during the civil war, was unacceptable to the country's development in the period of peace.Prodrazvyorstka was a burden for ordinary people, and the nationalization of enterprises and complete centralization of control is not allowed to develop.The introduction of the NEP - a response to the general dissatisfaction of "war communism."
situation in the country before the introduction of the NEP
By the end of the civil war the country was destroyed in every way.Former Russian Empire lost to Poland, Latvia, Estonia, part of the Ukraine and Belarus, Finland.Affected areas of mining - the Donbas, oil regions, Siberia.Reduced industrial production, and in agriculture there have been features of a serious crisis.In addition, the surplus angry peasants refused to hand over the bread, the situation escalated.Rebellion swept Donschinu, Ukraine, Kuban, Siberia.A wave of discontent in the army passed.In 1920, a question was raised on the abolition of the surplus.These were the first attempts to introduce the NEP.The reasons: the crisis state of the economy, the destruction of industry and agriculture, the hardships of the surplus, which fell on the shoulders of ordinary people, foreign policy failures, currency instability.
proclamation of a new way in the economy
Reformation began in 1921, when the Tenth Congress of the RCP (b) adopted a resolution on the transition to the tax in kind.Initially, the NEP was planned as a temporary measure.Reforms were delayed for several years.The essence of the NEP - making changes in the industry, agriculture and the financial sector that will ease social tensions.Targets set by the sponsors of economic transformation on the political, economic, social and foreign policy spheres.
believed that free trade was the first innovation, but it is not.Initially, it was considered dangerous to the government.The idea of entrepreneurship, the Bolsheviks did not come immediately.NEP period - the time the innovations have been an attempt to combine socialist government with elements of a market economy.
industry first innovation was the creation of the trusts.It is the union of similar businesses that have a certain freedom of action, financial independence.The introduction of the NEP - the beginning of a complete reform of the industry.New associations - trusts - can decide what to produce, from what and to whom to sell it.Scope was broad: and the purchase of resources and the production of the state order.Trusts created a capital reserve, which was to cover the losses.
NEP - a policy that provides for the formation of syndicates.These groups consisted of several trusts.Syndicates engaged in foreign trade, lending, sale of finished goods, raw materials supply.By the end of the NEP period, the majority of trusts were in such unions.
for wholesale trade fairs acted, commodity exchanges.Began operating full-fledged market, which buys raw materials, finished products.An original ancestor of market relations in the Soviet Union was the NEP, the causes of which lay in the lack of organization of the economy.
One of the main achievements of the period was the return of the money wage.NEP - this time the cancellation of labor conscription, reduce the unemployment rate.The new economic policy actively developing the private sector in the industry.Nature of the process of denationalization of some enterprises.Individuals were given the right to open industrial plants and factories.
became popular concession - a form of lease when tenants are foreign individuals or legal entities.Part of the foreign investment was particularly high in the steel industry and textile industry.
Innovation in agriculture
NEP - a policy that has affected all sectors of the economy, including the agricultural and scope.Overall assessment of the impact of innovations - is positive.In 1922 it approved the Land Code.The new law banned private ownership of land, were allowed to use only on loan.
Policy NEP in agriculture affected the social structure and property of villagers.Prosperous peasants was not profitable to develop its economy, moreover, they pay higher taxes.The poor were able to improve the financial situation.Thus, the rich and the poor has decreased - there were "average."
Many farmers increased land holdings, increased motivation to work.In addition, it is the inhabitants of the village were the burdens of taxes.A expenses of the state were enormous - the army, industry, economic recovery after the Civil War.Taxes on the rich peasants did not help raise the level of development, so we had to use new ways of filling the treasury.So, there was a practice of buying grain from farmers at low prices - this has led to a crisis and the emergence of the concept of "price scissors".The culmination of the economic depression - 1923.In the years 1924-25 crisis over again - its essence has been a significant fall in the number of harvested grain.
NEP - this time of change in the field of agriculture.Not all of them have led to positive results, but there were features of the market economy.By the end of the period of the NEP crisis increase.
for reforms were necessary changes in the circulation of money.The main objective of the NEP - to stabilize the financial sector and to normalize monetary relations with other countries.
first step reformers became the denomination currency.The currency strengthened gold reserves.Emissions arising used to cover the budget deficit.From financial developments in the country have suffered mostly peasants and the proletariat.The general practice was to state loans, to increase the luxury tax and the reduction of basic necessities.
At the beginning of the NEP reforms in the financial sector were successful.It is possible to carry out the second stage of reforms in 1924.It was decided to introduce a hard currency.In the back were Treasury notes, and for international payments using gold coins.It became a popular loan, through which most of the operations going on sale.In the USSR it was opened a few large banks, who worked with the industry.At the local level financial support provided communal banks.Gradually, the financial system is expanding.There were banks, who worked with agricultural institutions, foreign institutions.
political development of the NEP
Economic reforms were accompanied by a political struggle within the state.There were growing authoritarian tendencies.During the reign of Vladimir Lenin may be called "collective dictatorship."Power was concentrated in the hands of Lenin and Trotsky, but from the end of 1922 the situation has changed.Opponents Trotsky created a personality cult of Lenin and Leninism was the focus of philosophical thought.
intensifies the struggle in the Communist Party itself.There was no uniformity in the organization.He formed the opposition, which advocated granting full power of trade unions of workers.Related to this is the emergence of a resolution which proclaimed the unity of the Party and binding Implementation majority of all its members.Almost everywhere, the party took office the same person as the workers of the state structures.Belonging to the ruling circles became a prestigious goal.The party is constantly expanding, so over time began to conduct "cleansing" directed against "false" Communists.
Crisis was the period after the death of Lenin.The efforts of the conflict between the old and the young party.The organization gradually stratified - more privileges received the tip, which was named "nomenclature."
So, even in the last years of Lenin's life his "heirs" began to share power.From the management tried to push the leaders of the old model.In the first place Trotsky.With him we fought in many ways, but most often only accused of various "sins".Among them - deviationism, Mensheviks.
positive features of the New Economic Policy, which appeared in the initial stage of transformation, gradually disappearing because of the unfortunate and inconsistent actions of the party leadership.The main problem - the conflict between the authoritarian communist system and attempts to introduce a market economy model.These were two poles, which are not fed, and destroying each other.
New Economic Policy - NEP - gradually diminishing since the 1924-1925 period.Market features were replaced centralized control system.Eventually planned and state leadership took over.
fact NEP ended in 1928, when he was proclaimed the first five-year plan and the policy of collectivization.Since then the new economic policy had ceased to exist.NEP officially turned over only 3 years - in 1931. Then came the ban on trade in private.
NEP - a policy that has helped rebuild the shattered economy.The problem was the lack of qualified professionals - this shortcoming is not allowed to build effective governance of the country.
The industry managed to reach high levels, but the problems remain in the agricultural sector.She paid little attention and finance.The system was ill-conceived, so there was a strong imbalance in the economy.A positive feature - the stabilization of the currency.