process of enslavement of the peasants in Russia took several centuries.Since the reign of Ivan III, when formed a centralized state, headed to Moscow, and to the complete enslavement of two centuries have passed.It all started with the St. George's Day in the first Sudebnik then forbidden years, the appointed years.This links in a chain, and each must be considered in conjunction with others.
St. George's Day
St. George's Day - a celebration of St. George in late November.Since the first of Laws in 1497 the transition to another landowner peasants confined week before and the week after that day.He ended the cycle of agricultural work, the money paid for the use of outbuildings, and the family could leave cultivators look for a lighter bread from another host.The fact that there was a shortage in the Russian workers.The Emperor gave the land for the service and work on it there was no one.Therefore votchinniki and landlords competed among themselves to overtighten the peasants themselves, provide the best conditions for living and working.
By the end of the reign of Ivan the Terrible in the economic sphere reigned complete devastation.Play Livonian War oprichnina policy and undermined the country's budget, there was desolation landlords and patrimonial lands.Under these conditions, increased population movements, peasants often moved from place to place in search of a better life.Therefore Ivan in the sunset of his reign responded to their petitions serving people entering the so-called protected years, which have anticipated the appointed years.These were the times of the ban to the peasants the right to use the St. George's Day.To make this decision as a temporary, but, as they say, there is nothing more permanent than temporary.
Another step to reduce the freedom of the peasants, was the introduction of a time limit years.Year of their occurrence is not fully defined.Pre - this is the reign of the last Rurikovich Fedor, but actually engaged in the management of state-law Tsar Boris Godunov.In the decrees of the period does not apply the term "portion to the summer."1597 Nevertheless, in most textbooks on Russian history is defined as the date of introduction of the period of investigation of the peasants who had gone to the home of the forbidden years.That is, at a time when the transitions are prohibited.It was the only way for farmers to change something in their lives.So, they ran away to another without the permission of the landowner.The receiving host was interested in it, so hid deserters.Taskmgr years - a period in which the owner of the peasants could appeal to the executive branch, a statement about the loss of his men.If the farmers were found at a given time (a lesson), then returned to its previous owner.
Dates investigation farmers
first decree of the king introduced five-year terms of investigation of the peasants, then this period was increased to seven, ten and fifteen years.In the early 17th century in some areas due to hunger were canceled forbidden years, and hence the appointed years.This, however, does not mean that the process of enslavement was discontinued rather suspended in the turbulent events of the Time of Troubles.At the first kings of the Romanov dynasty, a policy of maneuvering between the interests of different sectors of society, including land owners at various levels.Some demanded that the king reduce the term spying runaway, others - increase.In the interest of settling the southern lands government even went to cancel the time limit years.But gradually life is getting better, the interests of landowners approached, feudal mode of production demanded legalized serf relationship.
year time limit on the board Alexei Mikhailovich had several major riots.Popular discontent was linked with the establishment of new state and church orders and deteriorating living standards.As often happens, the state becomes stronger and richer, while the people get poorer.In 1648 there was a revolt of Salt, the first of chreda subsequent unrest.Frightened by the revolt the young king summoned the Zemsky Sobor.It revealed many contradictions of the feudal state.Yet the result was the adoption of a new set of laws of Russia called "Conciliar The Code".As for farmers, they were considered the property of the feudal lords and their private property.Anyone who harbored runaway peasants were punished.And for themselves fugitives repeal any time limits after which they could hope to obtain freedom from the host.Thus, the cancellation time limit years, recorded in 1649, meant the finalization of serfdom.Now lifelong every departed from the owner risked being caught and returned to the owner, who could punish him for any reason.This does not mean that shoots have stopped, but the peasants had not fled to another owner, and to the south, in the Cossack lands.With this state was also destined to wage a long struggle.