Order "Red Flag" are the first awards of the Soviet state.They were established for the promotion of the special manifestation of courage, selflessness and courage in defending the Fatherland.In addition, the Order of the Red Banner awarded and military units, ships, public and government organizations.Up until 1930, the Order was the highest degree of promotion of the Soviet Union.
first Soviet award
In 1918, a few days before the celebration of the first anniversary of the October Revolution in the Soviet Union was approved by the first badge - the Order of the Red Banner.There was this award in two ways: military and labor.In September 1918, it was first approved by the Statute of the mark, and then a month later, he appeared.
Well-known fact is that the Bolsheviks came to power in 1917, abolished all the awards and distinctions that existed in the pre-revolutionary period in the history of our country.Initially, all promotions to celebrate any services to the country, have been replaced by the name of GIFT: cigarette cases, watches, weapons.However, the longer the civil war in Russia, the need is clearly manifested in the emergence of award marks that would have clearly demonstrated the merits of this or that person to a new country and the new government.Thus, they would be stimulated to a more selfless work of those who have already received such encouragement, and those who only aspire to that.
As a result, in 1918 at the initiative of the Central Executive Committee Yakov Sverdlov, a special commission, which begins to develop the first project award distinctions in the country for the soldiers and commanders of the Red Army.This group is headed by Abel Safronovich Yenukidze and working on a sketch of the Order entrusted to the artist Denisov VI and his son Vladimir Denisov So, a few days of hard work father and son offered to the Commission drafts of the first Soviet badge.Of the several options to choose the one that included all the elements that symbolize the young Soviet government.It is a red star, growing red flag, hammer and sickle, plow and a bayonet, a symbol of association of peasants, workers and soldiers.The final sketch of the project was approved in October 1918 by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee.Thus, the release orders of the Labor Red Banner and a young country celebrated the first anniversary of the Great October Revolution.
Statute for the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, and was very short.It contained a little bit of a reality for what actions a person can note this award.The reason is that the "Red Flag" were the only signs of honor in its own way and in the young state in principle.In particular, it was mentioned in the special explanation.The Order of the Red Banner was the only promotion that could reward the soldiers of the Red Army for their military achievements.They were noted for their bravery, courage and selflessness special as individuals and military units (company, shelves, parts, and so on. D.), And public organizations.Knights, awarded the Order of the Red Banner, called "krasnoznamentsami" and groups - "Red Banner".In the future statute of the badge repeatedly edited and supplemented.
All first "Red Flag" supplemented by special charter, which states that, to whom, when and for what services was presented this award.This diploma is a very important and essential attribute, spurred by certifying the right to carry such a sign.According to the original Statute, had the right to represent the Order only commissioners and commanders of the Red Army, the volunteer corps and navy.But over time, the list was expanded perspective Cavaliers.
Badges "Red Flag" made of silver in the form of a laurel wreath (gilded), spoke of his foundation.In the lower part it placed tape on which was written in golden letters "USSR".The top of the order covered a detailed red banner on which was written "Proletarians of all countries, unite!" A little below the center flagpole crosses the torch.Their lower ends protrude slightly beyond the wreath.The flame of the torch on the Order to symbolize the immortal feat of the heroes of the revolution.At the center of the badge on a white background are crossed hammer, plow and bayonet, which covers a five-pointed red star inverted.At its center is a golden laurel wreath, inside of which are located on a white field gilded hammer and sickle.
on repeated orders of the Red Banner of tape was placed directly under the shield of a small white enamel, it staged numbers 2, 3, 4 and so on.They represent the number of awards this sign.Banner, ribbon and five-pointed star ends covered with ruby red enamel, and the image of the hammer and plow oxidized, other images and inscriptions gilded.
Order of Red Banner of Labor, as well as its combat version was made of silver.Its content in the award of 22.719 grams of ± 1,389.The total weight of the mark - 25.134 grams ± 1,8.The height of the order - 41 mm, width - 36.3 millimeters.By means of the ring and the tab is connected to reward rectangular block, which is covered with silk moire tape width of 24 mm.At its center is a white longitudinal stripe, the width of which is eight millimeters closer to the edges of the two white stripes seven millimeters wide each, and two white stripes width of one millimeter.Knights of the Order wear it on the left side of the chest.
first holder of this prestigious award became Vasily Konstantinovich Blucher, in 1918 he was chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Chelyabinsk.The Order of the Red Banner, he got for being able to unite under his command several armed groups, which made his legendary march to the Urals.This military operation was accompanied by cruel and heavy fighting with the forces of the Whites.Blucher ten-headed army marched in the rear of the enemy, and for forty days broke 1,500 kilometers, after which the guerrillas allied with regular Soviet units.For committing this feat September 30, 1918 the Central Executive Committee of Blucher is a governmental award - the Order of the Red Banner for the first number.Subsequently, over the entire period of the civil war it three more times represented by this prestigious award.And his fifth Order of the Red Banner of Vasily Blucher gets for his work in China, where he was a military adviser to the revolutionary government.However, it is worth noting that all these achievements are not saved by Marshal of the Soviet repression and death.
Great Patriotic War
During the Second World War "Red Banner of Victory" (the so-called Order of the Red Army soldiers) was served 305035 times.Too many soldiers have earned several such awards.It is necessary to think about this figure - more than three hundred thousand, and despite the fact that such a mark is among the elite.Such an amount without any words indicating a high degree of heroism and self-sacrifice manifested Russian soldiers.Typically, "Red Banner of Victory" received the commanders of various compounds, as well as pilots for the successful conduct of attack / bombing, shooting down enemy vehicles.The younger the commander of the Red Army, and the more enlisted men were awarded this honor very rarely.
However, fixed and unique cases.For example, the young guerrillas Volodya Dubinin was awarded this mark in 13 years, though posthumously;and 14-year-old Igor Pakhomov had just two orders.Another student in Kiev 12 years received the award for being kept during the occupation of the two regimental banner.
complete list of award recipients
total from 1918 to 1991, this award was issued more than 580 thousand times, including the Order of the Red Banner of Labor.And some people have become fivefold, sixfold, and some seven-time gentlemen.The first who was able to receive the 1967 award with the number seven on the front side, became a Major General of Aviation MI Burtsev.Later, another seven-time owner of the mark has become famous pilot ace, Marshal Kozhedub.Today this government award was abolished, but the most famous units and the armed forces have continued to be called the Red Banner.