huge area of forest on the Pechora and Karelian taiga, oak stretching to the middle band, which includes prairie grain barns and pastures tundra - this whole area - not that other, as the Russian plain.Map of the country confirms that these lands are a large number of cities and towns, and consequently, they are the most densely populated.
Russian or East European Plain have seen more than thousand-year history of Russia.She served as a field for the liberation struggles, she walked through the Tatar-Mongols armies of Napoleon and Hitler.It is on this plain unfolded grandiose revolutionary events.It also passed the basic construction of a socialist society.And so far, this area is an important economic part of Russia.
East European Plain is located in the vast territory.In its area, it is second only to the Amazon.Its land start at the Baltic coast and mountain ranges extend to the Urals, from the White Sea and the Barents Sea to the Caspian and Azov.
geographical position of the Russian Plain is such that it has access to two oceans.
in the northwestern part of the area is limited to the Scandinavian mountains.In the southwest and west it reaches the ridge of Central Europe and the Carpathians.What else are the mountains on the border of the territory occupied by the Russian plain?Map indicates the location in the southeast of the Caucasus mountain range, the Urals and Mogodzhary - in the east.In addition, the territory of the Russian plain ends at the northern foot of the Crimean Mountains in the Crimean peninsula.This whole area of four million square meters.It is more than two and a half thousand kilometers from north to south and a thousand - from east to west.
geographical position of the Russian Plain is that its large areas are within the Russian Federation.In addition, there are located countries such as Latvia and Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Ukraine and Moldova, Poland, Finland, Bulgaria and Romania, and Kazakhstan.
on the territory of the East European Plain located hill, the maximum height - from 200 to 300 meters above sea level.There are also plain to them flowing major rivers.Maximum height of the plains observed in the Urals and in Bugulma-Veremeevskoy hill.Here it reaches 479 m. The average height across the plains is at around 170 meters.
description and classification of the external signs of relief engaged orography.This is one of the sections, which includes geography.Russian plain on the grounds, which are described orography, is divided into three bands - the central, northern and southern.In the first of them on the Russian plain, you can see such a hill Privolzhsky, Central Russian, Bugulma-Belebeevsky and General Sirt.They are separated from each other Low Volga and Oka-Don lowland.
Relief Russian plains in the northern strip of mostly low-lying.Only in some places in the area singly or in small garlands scattered small hill.In the direction from west to east and north-east are alternate Smolensk and Moscow, as well as the Valdai Hills and ridges of the Northern Zone.Their territory is a watershed between the Arctic, North, Atlantic, as well as the internal draining of the Aral-Caspian basin.It is noteworthy that from the Northern ridges to the Barents and White seas, there is some reduction in the territory of the plains.
In the third, southern strip of lowland are numerous.Among them, The Black Sea, Caspian and others.They are separated by low hills (Stavropol, Ergeni and so on. D.).
tectonic structures in the earth's crust has large areas whose boundaries are deep faults.This is the tectonic structures.They separate study of geological sciences.Its name - tectonics.This discipline focuses on two major structures that are located in the Earth's crust.This platform, as well as mobile belts.The first of these portions are resilient, having a flat surface.Platforms are already on the ground destroyed folded structures.Thus they have a two-layer structure.So, the bottom of the platform is the crystalline basement, which is composed of the ancient hardwood.Above that is a layer of sedimentary cover.Participation in its formation later took deposits.Tectonics releases platform slabs and panels.The first ones are those areas where the foundation lies entirely on the depth, covered with sedimentary cover.Shields are also the areas of crystalline basement, elevated above the ground.There is also a sedimentary cover.However, it is not continuous, and low power.
Regarding the mobile belt, it is an elongated portion of the earth's crust in the area which until now continuing educational processes.
Based on this classification, to a tectonic structure dedicated Russian plain?Of course, the first group, that is, to the platforms.
basis of the Russian Plain is an ancient platform.That is why the relief of the area consists mainly of lowland.The formation of such a vast territory had an impact many natural factors.This wind, water and glaciers.
basement of the East European platform located at different depths.Only between Karelia and the Kola Peninsula, he comes to the surface of the earth.In this zone is the so-called Baltic Shield.It is associated with the origin of Hibin located on the Kola Peninsula.In the rest of the foundation covers the sedimentary cover, which has a different capacity.All
hills that are on the East European Plain, formed deflections or platform, or under the influence of the glacier, or picked up at the foundation.
Influence of tectonic plates on the landscape
Russian plain has a typical platform relief.At the same time all of its lowland and upland are of tectonic origin.What are the features of this platform?Which tectonic structure dedicated Russian plain?
throughout the territory in question is dominated by flat terrain.And it's all thanks to the tectonic structure, which has a plain platform.All the irregularities of the foundation led to the formation of the largest plains and some hills.For example, raising the foundation Voronezh became the cause of Upland.Lowering the platform has led to the Caves and the Caspian depression.
Tectonic structure of the Russian Plain in most areas presented plate with the Precambrian crystalline foundation.Southern areas are located on the northern edge of the Scythian plate lying on the Paleozoic folded basement.This structure gives a more detailed answer to the question as to which of the tectonic structure of the Russian plain dated.And the boundary between the two plates on the terrain has no effect.
structure tectonic strata
Although the general nature of the territory is plain, in his relief there are both lowland and upland.The explanation for this can be found in the tectonic features of the Russian Plain.The fact that its structure is heterogeneous nature and diversity of contemporary educational movements.On closer examination it appears that the platform underlying the Russian plains, composed of smaller elements.They are:
- anteclise representing the zone of shallow foundation;
- syncline, are areas glei Precambrian basement is located at a great depth.
The largest of these elements are located in the central part of the Russian plate.This is the Volga-Ural and Voronezh anticline.As part of the first of these are large uplift (vaults), and depression.The power of the sedimentary cover is about 800 meters.
the Voronezh anticline gradually descends toward the north.On the surface of its foundation are thin in thickness of carbon deposition, Devonian and Ordovician.On a steep southern slope overlie rocks of the Paleogene and Cretaceous.Located here and Carbon.
most ancient and complex in its composition element is the Moscow area.Here, the crystalline basement occurs in the earth's crust at great depth.At the heart of Moscow syncline are aulacogens, filling them are thick strata reef.Above these layers of sedimentary cover is represented by a variety of rocks from the Cambrian to the Cretaceous.
in Neogene-Quaternary Moscow syneclise undergone uneven lifting.This was reflected in terrain where there are hills, as the Valdai and Smolensk and Moscow, as well as lowland - Northern Dvina and the Upper Volga.
on the East European Plain is another major syneclise - Pechora.It takes wedge territory in the north-eastern part of the Russian plate.Its a block foundation is uneven at different depths, reaching the eastern region from 5000 to 6000 meters.Completion of this syncline are thick strata of Paleozoic rocks, which are overlain by Meso-Cenozoic deposits.
So we decided in order to some tectonic structure dedicated Russian plain, what is its geologic history.Due to the long period of its establishment, the oldest platform is a powerful geostruturu.It contains inexhaustible reserves of minerals.Thus, in the base platform found deposits of iron ores.They are located in the area of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly.In the sedimentary cover platform discovered coal reserves.They develop in the eastern part of Donbass and the Moscow basin.In the Mesozoic and Paleozoic sediments are oil and gas reserves.It is the Ural-Volga basin.Not far from the Syzran discovered oil shale.In the depths of the Russian plain a lot of different building materials - limestone and gravel, clay, and so on. D. Were found in the sedimentary cover brown limestone, bauxite, salt and phosphates.
variety of natural areas
As we already know, the Russian Plain is located in the vast territory.That is why it is characterized by a pronounced diversity of climate.Natural areas of the Russian Plain are presented in all its diversity.In the Far North - tundra with its low power and poor vegetation growing on humus-peaty soils.Summer cold in these parts, with high humidity, the increasing due to the proximity of the Arctic Ocean.
little to the south of this region is a zone of forest tundra.Next is a middle band of the Russian Plain.It is covered with forests.The northern part is dominated by dark coniferous taiga growing in boggy podzolic soils.Towards the south there are mixed arrays, alternating with deciduous forests of oak, maple and linden trees.
Natural areas of the Russian Plain in southern presented steppe and steppe.This fertile territory, as a rule, black soil with herbaceous vegetation.
extreme southeast of the East European Plain is located in the Caspian depression.Under the influence of the dry climate is semi-desert zone has formed, located on chestnut soils.In some places there are also desert.This area of gray soils, solonetz and salt marshes.
Conclusion How more fully and in detail can be studied Russian plain?The table, which made a variety of indicators (tectonic structure, natural areas, the climate and so on. D.), Should be carefully considered.This is a great visual aid that can provide invaluable assistance in understanding and learning the required material.