How to make lists of references?

writing written work of any kind - Student essay or just articles - requires the presence of an element such as a list of sources used and literature.It is usually located at the end of the creative work is not only a numbered list of bibliographic descriptions.It contains a kind of key that can give an idea of ​​such an author as correct, ethics in relation to other people's creative work, accuracy and consistency.

What is

bibliography contains detailed information on what the author refers in his study.Here you can find comprehensive information on sources:

  • Information about the author.
  • place and year of publication.
  • What type of information is contained.
  • Name of the publisher.
  • Pages.
  • number magazine or that book.

whole set of data arranged in a certain order clearly is called bibliographic description and generates a bibliography according to GOST.That he is that special regulatory document that contains all the rules of registration.

What purpose is served bibliography

There may be more.First, a list of sources used and literature - is an organic component of any scientific work.Without them, the fundamental nature of a creative work is questionable.After all, it is no secret that the knowledge and information about any process, object or phenomenon the author takes from any source, in which can be:

  • previously conducted research in a particular area;
  • scientific works of other authors;
  • manuals and handbooks;
  • articles published in specialized scientific journals and so on. D.

This list can be continued.

Secondly, the list of references contain valuable information about on whose works, scientific works of the author refers in his study.You can get an idea of ​​what opinion he holds in a particular issue.

Thirdly, for those who continue to research in the consideration or related fields, lists of references provide accurate information about a particular source.

Particulars of

This is perhaps the most difficult moment associated with this part of the creative work, since it includes a number of subtleties that lose sight of negligent students, graduate or post-graduate students.For information on how to issue a list of references, there is a lot of information: examples, relevant regulations, and more.So, what should be remembered, starting to design.


sources you can use these options:

  • in alphabetical order, with its data sources on the basis of the authors or titles;
  • as links or citation - a fairly simple way, but only at first glance, since the difficult search for the desired source, so can be used in small-volume work;
  • according to the type of document, a list drawn up on the basis of the kind of the edition (regulations, articles, books and so on. D.), Divided into parts, in which the sources are listed alphabetically;
  • of history, if we are talking about historical research and to draw attention to the periodization and the date of publication of the source.

As a rule, students in their work using the first two options.

Bibliographic subtleties

next point to which you should pay attention, considering the design of bibliography is a bibliographic description.It contains a number of components, which are located in well-defined order.

  1. name of the author with the initials.There may be an alias.
  2. without the quotation marks is the name of Books, articles or other works.
  3. insert additional information describing the name.
  4. after a punctuation mark here again is the author's name.The only difference is that the initials stand before her.If the author of two or three, then similarly placed elements of information about them.
  5. provides information on publications, which includes an indication of the place or city, the name of the publisher and year of manufacture.
  6. following data on the total number of pages or numbers, if has been used only a part of a book or journal article.

Approximately thus formed bibliography GOST.However, there are still a number of elements that could be included in the description.This is an indication that the information is an electronic resource.Provided it is usually in brackets behind the name implies.At the end of the bibliographic description of a URL-address or access mode.

Literature diploma: what you need to know to properly arrange

you need to remember that for the study of this level implies a certain source.Their style and content should correspond to the topics of work.

As is known, the structure of the thesis consists of an introduction, several chapters, conclusion, list of literature.Last certain way linked to all listed elements.In the introduction to the authors, who were involved in the stated issues.If used when writing their works, the text must contain links, which lead to the bibliographic descriptions and allow to generate a list of references of the thesis.It is located at the end of the explanatory note, following the conclusions, but before applications.

also head of the diploma may require the use of "fresh" source, date of publication which was not earlier than five years before the writing of the diploma.It should also be remembered that all references must be in the explanatory note, placed before the conclusion and bibliography.These final elements of the thesis they should not be, because the first contains its own conclusions and recommendations of the author, and the second located sources themselves.

Naturally, in each discipline or field of science has its own peculiarities registration.Let us discuss some of them in detail.

Legal niceties

If you want to make a list of references on the right, you need to pay attention to the following points.

  • The order of the arrangement of sources. It begins with the legal acts and documents.Next come the materials legal practice.They were already in the order is the rest of literature: books, periodicals, foreign publications and online resources.If any element is missing, for example, materials, practices, over the legal documentation will immediately follow the rest of the literature.

  • hierarchy in the distribution of legal sources. They are arranged according to the legal force since the Russian Constitution, followed by the international legal instruments ratified by Russia.If the work on the text of a treaty is used, in which the country is not involved, there is a link to it immediately after the list of court decisions.

Sometimes you need a lawyer to apply to the regulatory acts which have lost their validity.In this case, they also must be present in the list, but the list located at the end of the current legislative framework.These sources are subject to the above rules, the only difference being that in the parentheses is a corresponding mark.
followed by laws, decrees, acts of the government and ministries.Within the group of legal acts arrangement is based on that used for the document.If it orders or decisions, then use the alphabetical order when regulations, then chronological.

If the text of the work, there are indications of any of the laws of the Russian Federation, such a source is located after the departmental and ministerial regulations.The provisions of the local government or other public bodies follow the legislative acts of the Russian Federation.

Accounting features

has its own specifics and such areas as accounting.References are also drawn up on the basis of the legal significance of sources.The first to settle the law.They are followed by regulations, instructions and materials practice.Then there are manuals, books and periodicals.

What you need to know if the job management

There are rules that have been given above, based on them, a list of references.Management as a special area of ​​activity may affect any industry.If the questions are about law, rule location of normative documents.In characterizing the health standards and labor protection at the enterprise must take into account that the standards and guidelines should be placed after the acts of higher legal force.Next, place the textbooks, books, periodicals and other publications.Examples

design literature

They will help to finally sort out how to put in order the list of references.

Example of a textbook or article:

  • Sviridov PR Properties education entities [Text] / PR Sviridov.- Moscow: Princely Court, 2013. - 280 p.
  • Petrov FK Tsar Peter as a reformer / F. K.Petrov // Philosophical Review.- 2013. - № 9. - S. 33-38.

As you can see, the area of ​​authorship is separated by a slash, followed by the initials are, and then last name.If a book is mentioned by several authors, the description thus served:

  • Vetrova ZK Financial Accounting [Text]: a textbook for high schools / ZK Vetrov, RS Balashov, KV Yarkova.- Moscow: Finansist, 2011. - 355 p.

Bibliographic description begins with the name, if the four works of the author, initials and last names are given after the slash.

  • Delovodstvo [Text]: textbook for coursework / DR Mitrokhin, VA Goryunov, ZI Sinitsyn, PDKartohin.- Krasnohrad Univ KraDTU, 2011. - 265 p.

How to make a correct list of references, if there is a link to the online publication?Here you need to know that this kind of power is usually complete list and always indicate a possible mode of access to them.

  • studied in Ukraine [electronic resource]: mnogopredmet.scientific.Zh./ Kiev.Polytechnic.Univ.- Electron.Zh.- Long: KPI, 2008.- access mode Zh .:

Examples of legal sources

How to make a list of references, if it includes legal documents, certificates:

  • On the formation of the commission on administrative reform [Text]: the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation from June 22, 2013 521 // Meeting of the legislation.- 2013 - 31 - Art.3320.
  • On the economic situation [Text]: Federal Law of January 30.1-FZ // Meeting of the legislation.- 2012 - 7 (2 February.).- C. 1346-1398 (v. 375).

When it comes to technical documentation, its design will be so:

  • Construction approved rules and regulations: SNIP 2.02.09 97. Impact and Load [Text]: a normative and technical material.- Moscow: [BI], 1997. - 34 p.