historical chronology, as it is known, is divided into two periods.Initially, there was a time, which contemporaries called the stage BC.It ends with the onset of the first year.At this time, we began our era, that until today lasts.And although today, calling the year, people do not say "n. E." Nevertheless, it is implied.
process of human evolution has created a need to streamline the date and time.Ancient farmers had to be as accurate as possible to know what time it is better to sow the seeds breeder nomads - when to move to other areas, in time to ensure their cattle feed.
So began to appear very first calendars.And they were based observations of celestial bodies and nature.In different nations there were differing time calendars.For example, the Romans led his chronology of the founding of Rome - 753 BC, while the Egyptians - the first time the board of each of the dynasties of pharaohs.Own calendars created many religions.For example, in Islam, a new era begins with the year of the birth of Prophet Muhammad.
the Julian and Gregorian calendars
in 45 BC, Gaius Julius Caesar established his calendar.It began the year with the first of January and lasted for twelve months.This calendar was named Julian.
one that we use today, was introduced in 1582 by Pope Gregory the Twelfth.He was able to eliminate some of the significant inaccuracies that have accumulated since the first Ecumenical Council.At the time they were ten days.The difference between the Julian and Gregorian calendars increases by about a day for each century, and today is thirteen days.
chronology in history always plays a big role.After all, it is important to, in what period of time occurred a significant event in the life of mankind, whether it is the creation of the first tools, or the beginning of the Hundred Years War.They say that history without dates similar to the math without numbers.
religious form chronology
Since the beginning of our era is calculated from the year is considered the birth date of Jesus, the religious variant is often used appropriate entry from the birth of Christ before him.Until now, there is absolutely accurate historical data about when the planet did life.And only based on religious and historical artifacts, scientists can draw conclusions about when something happened or about other events.This BC listed in chronological reverse order.
Mention section between the time before and after Christmas due to the calculation in the astronomical records made according to the number of integers on the coordinate axes.Year Zero is not accepted to use any religious or secular notations.But it is very common in the astronomical records and in the ISO 8601 - the international standard issued by an organization such as the International Organization for Standardization.It describes the format of dates and times, as well as recommendations for their application in an international context.
term "BC" received its distribution in the chronology after using it Venerable Bede - Benedictine monk.He wrote about it in one of his treatises.And since 731, the calculation of the time was divided into two periods: before Christ and after.Gradually, almost all countries in Western Europe began to move on this calendar.The most recent of these was Portugal.It happened Aug. 22, 1422.Before the first in January 1700 Russia used the chronological calculus Constantinople era.For a starting point it was adopted the Christian era of "creation of the world."By and large, the basis of many eras was laid relationship between the "days of creation of the world" and the entire duration of its existence.But Constantinople was created using Constance, and chronology of it was carried out from September 5509 BC.However, since the Emperor was not "consistent Christian," his name, and at the same time they created countdown mentioned reluctantly.
prehistoric and historic epochs
history - a prehistoric and historic times.The first one starts with the appearance of the first man, and ends when the script appeared.The era of prehistoric is divided into several time periods.The basis of their classification are the archaeological finds.These materials, of which BC people make tools, the period when they used them, formed the basis of recreating not only the timing but also the names of the stages of prehistory.
same historical era consists of antiquity and the Middle Ages, as well as modern and contemporary times.In different countries, they attacked at different times, so scientists are unable to determine their exact time frame.
is well known that a new era in the beginning not to calculate a continuous readout of years, for example, from the first year and to suppose this.Its chronology began much later, with the date of the Nativity.It is believed that it first calculated the Roman monk named Dionysius Small in the sixth century, that is, more than five hundred years after the events dated.To get the result, Dionysius counted first date of the Resurrection of Christ, based on the Church's tradition that the Son of God was crucified on the thirty-first year of life.
date of his resurrection, according to the Roman monk - this March 25 5539 the year of reckoning "from Adam" and the year of the birth of Christ, therefore, was the 5508 th in the Byzantine era.It must be said that the calculation of Dionysius up to the fifteenth century, raised doubts in the West.In itself, the Byzantine Empire and they did not recognize the canonical.
From the seventh to the third millennium BC, the planet was neolithic era - the period of transition appropriating forms of economy, namely hunting and gathering, the generating - agriculture and animal husbandry.At that time there were weaving, grinding stone tools and pottery.
end of the fourth - beginning of the first millennium BC: the planet reigns Bronze Age.Gets Distribution metal and bronze weapons, there are nomadic pastoralists.Bronze Age gave way to the Iron.At that time, Egypt was ruled by the first and second dynasties, unite the country into a centralized state.
In 2850-2450 years BC.e.It started the economic recovery of the Sumerian civilization.From 2800 till 1100 th rises Aegean, or the culture of ancient Greece.Almost at the same time in the Indus valley civilization of India was born, there was the highest flowering of the kingdom of Troy.
about 1190 BC.e.powerful Hittite empire collapsed.After nearly four decades Elamite king conquered Babylon and came heyday of his power.
In 1126-1105 years BC.e.came the reign of the emperor Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon.In the 331-meters in the Caucasus formed the first state.In the year 327 BC.e.held Indian company Alexander.During this period, there was a lot of events, including the slave revolt in Sicily, the Allied war Mithridatic War, campaign of Mark Antony to the Parthians, the reign of Emperor Augustus.
And finally, between the eighth and fourth years BC Christ was born.
Different peoples concept of chronology was always unequal.Each state has decided this problem on their own, while being guided by both religious and political reasons.And only in the nineteenth century all Christian states established a common reference point that is used to this day under the name of "our era".Calendar of the ancient Maya, the Byzantine era, the Hebrew calendar, the Chinese - they all had their date of creation.
For example, the Japanese calendar began in 660 BC and is updated after each death of the emperor.Buddhist era will soon enter into the year 2484 and calendar Hindi - in 2080.Aztecs update your calendar again in 1454, after the death and rebirth of the sun.Therefore, if their civilization is not lost, for them today would be just 546 years of a new era ...
Ancient map of the world
BC travelers were also interested in the world and its routes were drawings.They transferred them to bark, sand or papyrus.The first map of the world appeared in many millennia BC.That cave paintings have become some of the first images.While scouting the earth people, they were especially interested in ancient maps of bygone eras.Some of them represent our planet as a huge island lapped by the ocean, others can already see the outlines of the continents.
very first map created by BC, was a small clay tablet found in Mesopotamia.It dates from the end of the eighth - the beginning of the seventh centuries before our era, and is the only extant from the Babylonians.The land is surrounded by seas on it, called "salt water".For water - triangles, indicating clearly the mountains faraway lands.
This map shows the state of Urartu (modern Armenia), Assyria (Iraq), Elam (Iran) and Babylon itself, which takes place in the middle of the Euphrates.
Even the ancient Greeks were the earth sphere and very elegantly argued it.Pythagoras, for example, said that everything is in harmony in nature, and the most perfect form of it - the ball, which exists in the form of our planet.The first map, compiled based on the image of the Earth belongs to Eratosthenes.He lived in the third century BC in Cyrene.It is believed that the scientist who led the Library of Alexandria, and came up with a term such as "geography".It was the first time he has BC raschertil world into parallels and meridians, and called them "who go along" or "midday" lines.World Eratosthenes was one island, which is bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the top and bottom.It is divided into Europe, and Ariana Arabia, India and Scythia.To the south was Taprobane - current Ceylon.
This Eratosthenes seemed to live in another hemisphere, "antipodes", which it is impossible to reach.After all, people then, including the ancient Greeks thought that at the equator so hot that the sea was boiling, and all burned alive.Conversely, at the poles very cold, and there is not no one survives.
For several centuries, generally considered another map of the world.It was compiled by the ancient Greek scholar Claudius Ptolemy.Founded almost a hundred and fifty years before our era, it was part of vosmitomnika "Guide to Geography".
Ptolemy Asia have occupied the space from the North Pole to the equator, displacing the Pacific, while Africa blends in terra incognita, occupying the entire South Pole.To the north of Scythia was the mythical Hyperborea, and about America or Australia did not say anything.It is thanks to this map Columbus began to reach India by sailing west at the same time.And even after the discovery of America for some time continued to use a map from Ptolemy.