The second law of thermodynamics

Even in ancient times, has been noticed a pattern of distribution of heat: heat can spontaneously go from a heated body with a higher temperature to a less heated.The second law of thermodynamics, which explains this process has been opened by experimentation.For the first time its essence stated in 1824 Carnot, a French engineer, who determined how and under what conditions the fire passed into useful work in the machines of the time.In the middle of the XIX century on the basis of a German scientist Rudolf Clausius formulated the rule, which is now known as the second law of thermodynamics.Its essence is that heat is never transferred to a more heated body from a less heated spontaneously, ie the transfer of heat to the body temperature should be compensated by a greater supply of external energy.As an example, refrigeration units.Later, William Thomson and some other scientists to clarify the wording of the law.

This principle is even more widely understood than in the interpretation of Rudolf Clausius.Take, for example, the conversion operation into heat.It can be produced by the friction force.This work is translated into heat completely, without all the extra work and compensation.Reconversion itself impossible.The conversion of the resulting heat to work - this is an artificial process, ie, require special, artificially arranged conditions.

In general, the second law of thermodynamics formulated the principles and direction of the flow of natural processes.Proceeding from it, it is possible to explain operation of a number of devices.Thus, heat engines work by temperature differences, thanks to which heat is transferred from the heated part to the cold - from teplootdatchika a heat sink.In this case the efficiency of the device can not be one hundred percent.That is not all of the heat is converted into work, but only part of it.This may partially explain the fact that to create a perpetual motion machine (second kind) is in principle impossible.In other words, never invent a device that would comply fully and without any compensation to the heat transformed into work.Based on the above, researchers R. Clausius and W. Thompson determined the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics.First, heat can not spontaneously move from less heat to warmer bodies;Secondly, not all the heat directed from the heat sink to teplootdatchika passes into useful work, but merely a portion thereof.There are also several similar formulations, which generally reflect the above.Going from teploperedatchika to heat sink, energy does not disappear, so the law on the conservation of total energy does not contradict the second law of thermodynamics.Defining it is developing several scientists and consists of several main points, which are discussed in this article.

processes that are associated with the conversion of energy can occur spontaneously only in the case of a concentrated form of energy is turned into scattered.One of the most important abilities inherent to both people and the biosphere, ecosystems - is the ability to lower entropy.The latter term means the ratio of the amount of heat to the magnitude of the temperature is a kind of measure of the chaos associated with the loss of the ability of a system to perform a specific job;when the quantity of energy or entropy decreases.

In 1865, R. Clausius finalize the second law of thermodynamics.Entropy, by definition, increases when in a closed system of nonequilibrium processes occur spontaneously.

second law of thermodynamics subordinates so-called principle of the ecological pyramid;In addition, it - the source of the Law Lindemann, who explains the principles of the circulation of energy in the ecosystem.He points to the one-pointedness (transience) occurring in the nature of spontaneous processes.According to him, the energy is converted into heat, and heat is transferred from a cold body heat, which leads to the equalization of temperatures at a low level, the effect of which is to stop all sorts of forms of motion, or the like. N."Heat death."If to speak clear and simple language, the essence of the second law of thermodynamics is that all spontaneous, natural processes end the chaos and degradation.This can be explained by an example: if the house for many years to leave without a master, it will start gradually to decline, collapse.