desire to capture Leningrad simply pursued all German command.In this article we will tell about the event and how many days continued the blockade of Leningrad.It was planned by several armies, united under the command of Field Marshal Wilhelm von Leeb and collectively as the "North", push the Soviet troops from the Baltic states and begin to capture Leningrad.After the success of this operation, the German invaders would get a huge opportunity to suddenly break into the rear of the Soviet army and leave Moscow without protection.
blockade of Leningrad.Date
capture Leningrad by the Germans automatically deprive the Soviet Union of the Baltic Fleet, which is several times the strategic situation would worsen.Ability to create a new front for the defense of Moscow in this situation was not, because all the forces have already been used.Soviet troops were not able to psychologically accept the seizure of the city of the enemy, and answer the question: "How many days have continued the blockade of Leningrad?"It would have been quite different.But it happened, how it happened.
July 10, 1941 the Germans attacked Leningrad, the superiority of their forces was evident.Invaders but 32 infantry divisions, tank had 3, 3 Motorized Division and a lot of support of aviation.In this battle German soldiers resisted the northern and north-western front, where there were far fewer people (only 31 divisions and 2 brigades).Thus the defenders did not have any tanks, no weapons, no grenades, and all aircraft were 10 times less than that of the attackers.
Siege of Leningrad history first attacks of the German army
Applying a lot of effort, the Nazis drove the Soviets to the Baltic States and launched an attack on Leningrad in two directions.Finnish troops were moving through Karelia and German aircraft were concentrated around the city.Soviet soldiers held back the advance of the enemy by all means, and even stopped by the Finnish Army near the Karelian Isthmus.
German Army "North" went on the offensive on two fronts: lushskomu and Novgorod-Chudovo.The main shock Division changed their tactic and moved to Leningrad.Also headed to the city of the German air force, which is significantly higher than the Soviet one.However, despite the fact that aircraft of the USSR in many ways inferior to the enemy, she missed the airspace over Leningrad few Nazi planes.In August, German troops broke through to Shimskaya, but soldiers of the Red Army stopped the enemy at Staraya Russa.It is a little slowed down the movement of the Nazis, and even posed a threat to their environment.
Changing the direction of impact
fascist command has changed direction and sent under the Staraya Russa two motorized divisions, with the support bombers.In August, the city had been captured Novgorod and Chudovo and blocked railway tracks.German High Command decided to connect Lake Ladoga near his army to Finland, to move in this direction.Already in late August, the enemy troops blocked all roads leading to Leningrad, and on September 8 city was taken by the enemy during the siege.Keep in touch with the outside world was possible only by air or water.Thus, the Nazis "besieged" Leningrad, they began shelling the city and civilians.There have been regular aerial bombing.
Not finding a common language with Stalin in defense of the capital on September 12, it is sent to Leningrad Zhukov and proceeds to action for the protection of the city.But by October 10 because of the difficult military situation of Moscow Zhukov had to go there, and the team was appointed in his stead Major General Fedyuninsky.
Hitler broke with other areas further divisions in a short time to fully capture Leningrad and destroy the Soviet troops.The fight for the city lasted 871 days.Despite the fact that the enemy offensive was halted, the locals were on the verge of life and death.Food stocks every day becoming less and the shelling and air strikes have not stopped.
road of life
From the first day of the blockade only one strategic way - the road of life - could leave the besieged city.It passed through Ladonezhskoe lake is on it could run out of Leningrad, women and children.Also on this road into the city received food, medicine and ammunition.But the food is still not enough, the shops were empty, and near the bakery was going to a lot of people in order to get his ration coupons."The Road of Life" was narrow and constantly threatened by the Nazis, but the other way out of the city did not exist.
Soon after freezing, and ships with the provisions were not able to reach Leningrad.The city began a terrible famine.Engineers and workers at the plants were put on 300 grams of bread, as usual Leningrad - only 150 g of bread, but now the quality has deteriorated significantly - it was a rubber mixture of the remnants of stale bread and other inedible impurities.Lunches also cut.And when the cold reached minus forty, during the siege of Leningrad remained without water and without electricity.But the plants for the production of weapons and ammunition has worked non-stop, even in such a difficult time for the city.
Germans were confident that the city will not last long in such appalling conditions, his capture was expected from day to day.The Siege of Leningrad, the date of which, according to the Nazis, and was supposed to be the date of the taking of the city, was unpleasantly surprised command.People do not become discouraged and support each other and their defenders as they could.They were not going to take the position of the enemy.The siege dragged on, morale invaders gradually subsided.City failed to capture, and the situation became more complicated with each passing day the guerrilla actions.Army Group "North" was ordered to be fixed on the spot, and in the summer, when it's reinforcements, start to act.
first attempts to liberate the city
In 1942, Soviet troops made several attempts to liberate the city, but the breakthrough of the blockade of Leningrad did not work out.While all attempts have failed, yet offensive weakened the position of the enemy and provided an opportunity to try to lift the blockade again.This process takes Voroshilov and Zhukov.January 12, 1944 troops of the Soviet army with the support of the Baltic Fleet launched an offensive.Heavy fighting forced the enemy to use all his strength.Powerful strikes on all sides forced the army of Hitler to begin a retreat, and in June, the enemy was driven 300 km from Leningrad.Break the Siege of Leningrad was a triumph, and a turning point in the war.
history did not know such a cruel and prolonged military siege of the village, in Leningrad.How many nights of anxiety went through the residents of the besieged city, how many days ... The Siege of Leningrad lasted 871 days.People suffered so much pain and suffering, that would be enough throughout the world to the end of the century!The Siege of Leningrad - years, really bloody and dark for all.It was broken by the dedication and courage of the Soviet soldiers who were ready to sacrifice their lives for their homeland.After so many years, many historians and ordinary people were only interested in one thing: was it possible to avoid such a cruel fate?Probably not.Hitler had just dreamed about the day when he could take possession of the Baltic Fleet and block the road to Murmansk and Arkhangelsk, where reinforcements were arriving for the Soviet army.Was it possible to design the situation ahead of time and a little bit to prepare for it?"The Siege of Leningrad - the story of heroism and blood" - this could be characterized this terrible period.But let's look at the reasons because of which the tragedy and turned.
Background and reasons for the blockade of hunger
In 1941, at the beginning of September, the city was captured by the Nazis Shlisselburg.Thus, Leningrad was surrounded.Initially, the Soviet people did not believe that such a situation will lead to disastrous consequences, but still the panic was overcome Leningrad.The shops were deserted, all the money has been withdrawn from savings banks in just a few hours, most of the population was preparing for a long siege of the city.Some citizens even managed to leave the village before the Nazis began to mass killings, bombings and shootings of innocent people.But after a brutal siege began, out of the city it has become impossible.Some historians argue that the terrible famine in the days of the blockade arose from the fact that at the beginning of the blockade burned all badayev warehouses, and with them the food reserves, calculated over the entire city.
However, after examining all the documents on the subject, which, incidentally, has until recently been classified, it became clear that no "pools" of food in these stores were not initially.In the difficult war years, the creation of a strategic reserve for the 3 million residents of Leningrad was an impossible task.Locals fed to imported products, and they missed no more than a week.So were applied following strict measures: introduced ration cards, to monitor closely all the letters, the school closed.If some of the messages was seen any attachment or text contained decadent mood, it is destroyed.
Life and Death of a loved one within the precincts of the city
Siege of Leningrad - the years about which scientists are still arguing.After looking through the letters and preserved records of survivors of this terrible time, and trying to answer the question "how many days continued blockade of Leningrad", historians discovered the whole terrible picture.Immediately upon the inhabitants attacked hunger, poverty and death.Money and gold depreciated completely.The evacuation was planned at the beginning of the fall of the 41st, but by January of the following year it became possible to deduce from this horrible place most of the inhabitants.Near bread stalls, where people received rations on cards lined up just unimaginable turn.In this frosty time not only hunger and the invaders killed people.The thermometer was delayed for a long time record low temperatures.It provoked the freezing of water pipes and the rapid use of all available fuel in the city.The population left in the cold without water, light and heat.A huge problem for people have become hungry hordes of rats.They ate all the food supplies and were carriers of terrible diseases.Because of all these reasons, weakened and exhausted by hunger and disease, people were dying in the streets, they do not even have time to bury.
life of people in the blockade
Despite the gravity of the situation, the local people as they could support life in the city.In addition, the Leningrad and helped the Soviet Army.Despite the terrible living conditions, the plants did not stop his work for a moment and almost all produced military products.
people support each other, trying not to drop the culture of the city into the dirt, restores theaters and museums.Everyone wanted to prove to the invaders that nothing can shake their faith in a brighter future.The most striking example of love for his hometown and life history shows the creation of "Leningrad Symphony" Shostakovich.The composer began work on her back in the besieged Leningrad and graduated in the evacuation.After completing her transferred to the city, and the local symphony orchestra played a symphony for all of Leningrad.During the concert, the Soviet artillery did not give break to the city or a single enemy aircraft, to bombing derailed a long-awaited premiere.Never stopped working, and local radio, which gave the locals a breath of fresh information, and prolonged the will to live.
Children heroes.Ensemble AE Obranta
most sore point has always been the theme of saving suffering children.Start of the siege of Leningrad hit all, and the smallest in the first place.Childhood spent in the city, left a deep imprint on all the Leningrad children.They are all grown up before their peers as the Nazis brutally stole their childhood and carefree time.Kids, like adults, have tried to hasten the day of victory.Among them are those who were not afraid to give his life for the happy day approaching.They have remained in the hearts of many heroes.An example is the story of the children's dance ensemble AE Obranta.In the first winter of the siege the bulk of the children had been evacuated, but, despite this, the city they had still a great deal.Even before the outbreak of war in the Palace of Pioneers was founded by Song and Dance Ensemble.And in time of war remaining in Leningrad teachers sought his former disciples and resumes ensembles and groups.Also entered and choreographer Obrant.Of the remaining children in the city he created a dance group.In those terrible days and hungry children do not give yourself time to relax, and the band slowly gets to his feet.And this despite the fact that before the rehearsals many children had to be rescued from starvation (they just could not bear even the slightest load).
After some time, the team has already started to give concerts.In the spring of 1942 the guys started to tour, they tried very hard to raise the morale of the soldiers.The soldiers looked at these brave children could not contain their emotions.For as long as the blockade of the city lasted, children traveled with concerts all garrisons and gave more than 3 thousand concerts.There were times when speech interrupted by the bombing and the air raid.The boys were not afraid even to go to the front to lift the mood and support its defenders, though danced without music, so as not to attract the attention of the Germans.After the town was liberated from the invaders, all the children of the ensemble was awarded the medal "For the Defense of Leningrad".
turning point in favor of the Soviet troops occurred in 1943, and the soldiers were preparing for the liberation of Leningrad from the German invaders.January 14, 1944 the defenders began the final stage of the liberation of the city.By dealt a crushing blow to the enemy and opened all the land routes connecting Leningrad with other localities of the country.To break the blockade of Leningrad January 27 1944 soldiers Volkhov and Leningrad front.The Germans gradually began to recede, and soon completely lifted the blockade.
this tragic page in the history of Russia, the sprinkling of the blood of two million people.The memory of the fallen heroes passed on from generation to generation and lives in the hearts of people today.So how many days continued blockade of Leningrad, and that some people have demonstrated courage, admired even by Western historians.
January 27, 1944 at 8 pm in the liberated from the blockade of Leningrad soared skyward Firework.Selfless Leningrad lasted 872 days in harsh conditions of the siege, but now everything is left behind.The heroism of ordinary people still amazes historians defense of the city and still study researchers.And there's why!The Siege of Leningrad lasted almost 900 days and claimed many lives ... What is - hard to say.
Despite the fact that since 1944 has been more than 70 years, historians can not announce the exact number of victims of this bloody event.Below are some data taken from documents.
So, the official figure of those killed in the siege - 632 253 people.People died for several reasons, but mainly from the bombing, cold and hunger.The people of Leningrad endured difficult years of the cold winter 1941/1942, moreover, persistent shortages of food, electricity and water at all tormented population.Blockade of Leningrad experienced people, not only morally, but also physically.Residents received meager rations of bread, which was barely enough (and sometimes not enough at all), so as not to starve to death.
historians conduct their research on the surviving documents from the war Regional and City Committees All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks.Such information workers have a registrar, which recorded the number of dead people.Once the papers were secret, but after the collapse of the Soviet Union declassified archives, and many documents became available to almost everyone.
aforementioned number of dead is strongly at odds with reality.The liberation of the Nazi blockade of Leningrad was given ordinary people the cost of many lives, blood and misery.Some sources said about 300 thousand dead, while others say 1.5 million.It carried only civilians who did not have time to evacuate the city.