Trails: examples.

Every day we are confronted with a mass of means of artistic expression, often used in their speech themselves, even implying that.We remind mom that her golden hands;We remember the shoes, while they have long been out of general use;afraid to buy a pig in a poke and hyperbolizing objects and phenomena.All of this - the path, examples of which can be seen not only in literature, but in the speech of each person.

What means of artistic expression?

term "path" is derived from the Greek word tropos, which translated into Russian means "a figure of speech."They are used to give a speech, imagery, with the help of their poetry and prose are incredibly expressive.The trails in the literature, examples of which can be found in almost every poem or a story, make up a separate layer in the modern philological science.Depending on the situation, they are divided on the use of lexical means, rhetorical and syntactic figures.The trails are widespread, not only in literature but also in the oratory, and even eve

ryday speech.

Lexical means of Russian

Every day we use the words that are in some way decorate it, make it more expressive.Bright trails, which are innumerable examples in the works of art, no less important than lexical means.

  • Opposites - words of opposite meaning.
  • Synonyms - close within the meaning of lexical units.
  • Idiom - resistant combination consisting of two or more lexical units that are on semantics can be compared to one word.
  • dialect - words common only in a certain area.
  • Archaisms - obsolete words for objects or phenomena that modern counterparts are present in the culture and life of man.
  • Historicism - terms denoting extinct objects or phenomena.

trails in the Russian language (examples)

Currently, the means of artistic expression perfectly demonstrated in the works of the classics.Most often it is the poems, ballads, poems, stories and novels sometimes.They decorate it and give it the imagery.

  • Metonymy - replacing one word with another contiguity.For example: In the New Year at midnight the whole street came out to let fireworks.
  • epithet - figurative definition, giving the subject of additional features.For example: Masha was gorgeous silk curls.
  • Synecdoche - the name of the part for the whole.For example: At the Faculty of International Relations studies and Russian and a Finn, and the Englishman, and Tatar.
  • Avatar - assignment qualities animate inanimate object or phenomenon.For example: The weather worried, angry, raging, and a minute later the rain poured down.
  • Compare - expression, built on a comparison of the two subjects.For example: Your face fragrant and pale, like a spring flower.
  • metaphor - transferring properties of one object to another.For example: Our mom's golden hands.

trails in the literature (examples)

presented means of artistic expression rarely used in modern human speech, but that does not diminish their importance in the literary heritage of the great writers and poets.For litotes and hyperbole often find use in the satirical stories and allegory - in fables.Euphemism used to avoid repetition in a literary text or speech.

  • litotes - artistic understatement.For example: We have a factory working peasant with a fingernail.
  • paraphrase - direct replacement name descriptive expression.For example: today, especially yellow night light (the Moon).
  • Allegory - images of abstract images of objects.For example: Human qualities - cunning, cowardice, clumsiness - are revealed in the form of a fox, a hare, a bear.
  • Hyperbole - intentional exaggeration.For example: My friend is incredibly huge ears, the size of the head.

rhetorical figures

The idea of ​​every writer - to intrigue the reader and do not require answers to the problems.A similar effect is achieved through the use of a work of art of rhetorical questions, exclamations, appeals default.All this - the trails and figures of speech, examples of which are probably familiar to everyone.Their use in everyday speech with approval, the main thing - to know the situation when appropriate.

rhetorical question is put in the end of the sentence and does not require a response from the reader.It makes us think about pressing issues.

rhetorical exclamation completed imperative sentences.Using this figure, the writer calls for action.Exclamation should also refer to the "trail".

Examples rhetorical treatment can be found in Pushkin ("To Chaadaev", "To the Sea"), Lermontov ("Death of a Poet"), as well as in many other classics.It applies not to a specific person, but to the whole generation or era in general.Using it in fiction, the writer can blame or, conversely, to approve the actions.

rhetorical silence is actively used in the lyrical digressions.The writer does not express his thought through and gives rise to the following considerations.

Syntax figure

Such techniques are achieved through the construction of supply and include word order, punctuation;they contribute to an intriguing and interesting design proposals, so every writer strives to use these trails.Examples of particularly noticeable when reading the work.

  • polysyndeton - a deliberate increase in the number of unions in the sentence.
  • asyndeton - the absence of unions in the enumeration of objects, actions or events.
  • syntactic parallelism - comparison of two parallel phenomena through their image.
  • Ellipsis - intentional omission of a number of words in a sentence.
  • Inversion - violation of the order of words in the construction.
  • parceling - intentional division of the sentence.

Figures of Speech

trails in the Russian language, as exemplified above, is endless, but we should not forget that there is another section conditionally released by means of expression.Artistic figures play an important role in writing and speaking.

  • Anaphora - repetition of the initial segments of speech.
  • epiphora - repetition of the final segments of speech.
  • graduation - gradual ascension and constantly increasing from one thought to another.
  • Pun - use in the same sentence the same sounding words with different meanings.
  • antithesis - a sharp contrast between.
  • Oxymoron - combination of opposite meaning of the words.

Table of trails with examples

school students, graduates of humanities and philology faculty is important to know a variety of means of artistic expression, and when used in the works of classical and contemporary.If you want to know more, what are the trails, the table will replace you with examples of dozens of literary-critical articles.

Lexical tools and examples


Let us humiliated and insulted, but worthy of a better life.


my life - not that other, as the black and white stripes.


Before you buy jeans, learn about their quality, and then you slipped pig in a poke.


barbers (hairdressers) perform their job quickly and efficiently.


Lapti - something original and necessary, but not all, now they are.


in this area were carried out Koszul (snakes).

stylistic paths (examples)


You have nerves of steel, my friend.


foliage swaying and dancing to the breeze.


red sun sets behind the horizon.


I ate three plates.


consumer always chooses quality products.


Let's go to the zoo to look at the king of beasts (a lion).


You're a donkey (about stupidity).


I for three hours waiting for you!


But is this man?A peasant with a fingernail, and more!

Syntax figures (examples)


How many of those with whom I can be sad,
How little those who can not love.


We'll go for raspberries!
Do you like raspberries?
No?Tell me Daniel,
would go on raspberries.


I think about you, miss, remember, miss, I pray.


your fault I began to drown grief in wine.

rhetorical figures (treatment, exclamation, question, default)

When you, the younger generation will be polite?

Oh, what a wonderful day today!

And you say that you know perfectly well the material?

You come home soon - see w ...


I know perfectly well, and algebra and geometry, and physics, and chemistry, and geography, and biology.


The store sells shortbread cookies, crumbly, peanut, oatmeal, honey, chocolate, diet, banana.


not here that (it was)!


I tell you I'd like a story.


You are my everything and nothing.


Living Corpse.

role of artistic expression

use of tropes in everyday speech raises each person makes his literate and educated.With the variety of means of artistic expression can be found in any literary work, poetry or prose.Paths and shapes, examples of which should know and use every self-respecting person who does not have an unambiguous classification, as year after year philologists continue to explore this area of ​​the Russian language.If the second half of the twentieth century, they isolated a metaphor, metonymy and synecdoche, the list is now increased tenfold.