It is known that proteins are necessary and fundamental part of any living organism.It is they who are responsible for metabolism and energy conversion, which is inextricably linked with almost all vital processes.Dry matter vast majority of tissues and organs of animals and humans, and more than 50% of all microorganisms, mainly composed of proteins (40% to 50%).In the plant kingdom their specific gravity as compared with the average value is less, and the animal - more.However, the chemical composition of proteins for many people is still unknown.Let us remember once again what is inside of these high natural polymers.
This substance on average contain about 50-55% carbon, 15-17% nitrogen, 21-23% oxygen, 0.3-2.5% sulfur.In addition to these basic components, sometimes in proteins include elements, whose share is very small.This primarily phosphorus, iron, iodine, copper and certain other micro- and macronutrients.Curiously, the nitrogen concentration has the greatest persistence, while the content of other key components may vary.Describing the structure of a protein is required to be noted that it is an irregular polymer built of amino acid residues in the formula of which the water solution at neutral pH in the most general form be written as NH3 + CHRCOO-.
between these "bricks" are joined by an amide bond between the carboxyl and amino groups.Just nature revealed about thousands of different proteins.This class includes antibodies, enzymes, hormones, and many other biological active substances.Surprisingly, despite all this diversity, the protein composition may include no more than 30 different amino acids, 20 of which are most popular.In humans, they found only 22, the others simply can not be digested and excreted out.Eight amino acids from this group is considered to be indispensable.It leucine, methionine, isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine and valine.They are our body can not synthesize their own, but because of their required intake from outside.The remaining (taurine, arginine, glycine, carnitine, asparagine, histidine, cysteine, glutamine, alanine, ornithine, tyrosine, proline, serine, cystine), it may create their own.Therefore, these amino acids belong to the group of non-essential.Depending on the presence in the protein of the first group, and the extent of its absorption by the body, the protein is divided into high-grade and inferior.The average daily consumption rate of the substances to humans lies in the range from 1 to 2 grams per kilogram of body weight.This sedentary people should stick to the lower end of this range, and sporstmenov - top.
how to study the protein composition
To investigate these substances is mainly used method of hydrolysis.The caller protein of interest is heated with dilute hydrochloric acid (6.10 mol / liter) at a temperature of 100? C to 1100? C.As a result, it will break up into a mixture of amino acids that have isolated the individual amino acids.Currently, for the quantitative analysis of the test protein used paper, and ion exchange chromatography.There is even a special automatic analyzers which are easy to define exactly which amino acids are formed by the decay.