The main stages of development of economic theory

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basic concepts, principles and terms of the economy did not arise suddenly.They were the result of a long evolution of scientific knowledge and their application in practice.Over time, it became clear that the majority of human queries are able to meet only the economic activity and production.They form the necessary conditions.

Information about the first attempts to study individual aspects of social processes can be found in the works of thinkers of ancient Rome, Egypt and Greece, India and China.All of them consider issues related to wealth, money, trade, taxation, agriculture, housekeeping and the like.But the real history of the development of economics as a system of knowledge begins only with X VI century.This is due to the new general nature of the market economy.

main stages of development of economic theory, it is desirable to know for several reasons.Firstly, information about the formation of science in different historical periods and under the influence of different cultural traditions to help better understand their current ground logic of modern thought, its structure.

Second, information about how the main stages of development of economic theory, help stricter and more serious about the present policy judgments.Knowing a person can compare them with such statements and the events that occurred in the past and not to fall back on the hook.

And third, examining the main stages in the development of economic theory, anyone interested is sure to be attached to the treasury of world culture.He thus ennobles the mind, expanding worldview perceives reality more fully.

main stages of development of economic theory set out on the basis of at least two campaigns: the absolutist and relativistic.The last of them consider any historical phenomenon in the context of religious, political and other issues specific to that period.Absolutist approach comes from the fact that the theory is developed along with the continuing progress of the erroneous assumptions of the truth.

This article discusses only the first stages of development of economic theory in terms of mixed-relativistic absolutist approach.

1. Mercantilism.Proponents of this trend the main source of wealth was considered trade turnover scope.Enrichment was achieved through the accumulation of gold and silver money.Representatives of this trend: T. Mann, A. Montchretien.They reflect and protect the interests of the bourgeoisie, which sells goods during the period of development of foreign trade and accumulation of primary capital.

2. physiocrats.In contrast to the mercantilist they began to explore the sphere of production, not just the immediate sphere of circulation.The Physiocrats argued that agricultural labor - is the primary, the true source of enrichment.They were confident that industry, trade, transport - is the sphere of fruitless work that allows you to only cover the costs of existence.But profits for the society they absolutely do not bring.The views of the Physiocrats shared: Nora D., A. Turgot, F. Quesnay, Mirabeau B..

3. Classical political economy.It originated with the development of capitalism.Its founders recognized Ricardo, William Petty, Adam Smith.All eyes are focused on the analysis of economic phenomena, on the development of social production.That the creators of classical economics introduced a concept such as "labor theory of value."Market they saw as a system capable of self-regulation.

4. Marxism.The founders of this area have gone further.Marxists have analyzed as a developing form of value in their diversity, have offered alternative views of money, productivity, reproduction, economic crises, and ground rent.