Carbon dioxide.

Carbon dioxide - substance which has a variety of names: carbon monoxide (IV), carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide.Also, it is called carbon anhydride.It is completely colorless gas that is odorless, with a sour taste.Carbon dioxide is heavier than air and poorly soluble in water.At temperatures below - 78 degrees Celsius crystallizes and becomes like snow.

from the gaseous state is transferred to the solid substance, because it can not exist as liquid under atmospheric pressure.The density of carbon dioxide under normal conditions of 1.97 kg / m3 - 1.5 times the density of air.Carbon dioxide in solid form is called "dry ice".In the liquid state, which can be stored for a long time, it moves with increasing pressure.Let us consider the substance and its chemical structure.

Carbon dioxide, the formula is CO2, is made up of carbon and oxygen, and it turns out he is from the combustion or decay of organic matter.Carbon monoxide contained in the air, underground mineral source.People and animals also emit carbon dioxide during exhalation of air.Plants emit light without it, and during photosynthesis rapidly absorb.Through the process of metabolism of the cells of all living beings, carbon monoxide is one of the main components of the natural environment.

This gas is not toxic, but if it accumulates in high concentrations, can begin choking (hypercapnia), while its lack of developing the opposite state - hypocapnia.Carbon dioxide transmits ultraviolet rays and reflects infrared.It is a greenhouse gas that has a direct impact on global warming.This is due to the fact that the level of its content in the atmosphere is constantly increasing, and this leads to the greenhouse effect.

Carbon dioxide is obtained industrially from smoky furnace or gas or by decomposition of carbonate dolomite and limestone.The mixture of these gases is thoroughly washed with a special solution consisting of potassium carbonate.Then it goes into hydrogen and decomposes upon heating, whereby carbon dioxide is released.Carbonic acid (H2CO3) is formed from carbon dioxide dissolved in the water, but in the present conditions, and it is obtained by other, more advanced methods.After the carbon dioxide is cleared, it is compressed, cooled and pumped into the cylinders.

In industry this substance is widely and universally applied.Food industry workers using it as a disintegrator (e.g., for the preparation of the dough) or a preservative (E290).With the help of carbon dioxide produce different tonic drinks and soda, which are so loved by not only children but also adults.Carbon dioxide is used in the manufacture of baking soda, beer, sugars, effervescent wines.

Carbon dioxide is used in the production of efficient and fire extinguishers.With the carbon dioxide created by the active medium needed for welding wire.At a high temperature carbon arc gas decomposes into oxygen and carbon monoxide.Oxygen reacts with the liquid metal and oxidize it.Carbon dioxide in the cartridges is used in pneumatic rifles and pistols.

modelers use the substance as fuel for their models.With the carbon dioxide can enhance the yield of crops grown in the greenhouse.It is also widely used in industrial dry ice, where the food is much better preserved.It is used as a refrigerant in refrigerators, freezers, electric generators and other thermal power plants.