Language and speech - main categories of linguistics

such a problem, as the ratio of speech and language, has always paid special attention.Despite the harmony of these concepts, among them there is a significant difference.And if an ordinary person can not see the differences between them, the expert will always be able to explain clearly what is meant by terms such as speech and language, what they have in common and what distinguishes one from the other.

language - sign system consisting of the characters that carry some merit.By themselves, the characters do not carry an explicit sense, finding their meaning, settling in a certain order.

The language is accepted to allocate such basic units, as phonemes, morphemes, words, phrases and sentences.They constitute a single clear system structure of any known language.The main unit is considered to be meaningful word.

Like any sign system, language has its own laws and rules of life.

It is worth noting that there are many languages.Some date back to ancient times, while others are just beginning to exist (it is a man-made, such as meta-languages, programming languages, etc.).Some are dead, others are used to this day.

language and it is quite closely related.If the first - just theoretical knowledge, the second - the ability to use this knowledge in practice.It turns out that it - it is the language in action.

speech seizes a person starts from childhood.First period - phonetic, when a child is just beginning to absorb the sounds of their native language.II - grammar, the child has already learned the sounds, but the grammatical categories of language unknown to him.And the third - the semantic.At this time, the child masters the words, their meaning and semantics.

Language and speech are the subject of a detailed study of the various studies.Problems of language, its functioning and development of study philologists, linguists.It also examined not only linguists, but also psychologists, psycholinguists.Scientists are trying to determine the relationship between speech and language, as the language development affects the overall development of the child's thinking.

are two types of speech - written and oral.The latter is available to everyone and is formed in early years.The development of writing is much later.In addition, it is worth noting that the written language, in contrast to oral, not all possess.Typically, this applies to people who have not been able to get an education.Especially clearly expressed in the underdeveloped countries.Also, sometimes it is due to the social situation.For example, in the Middle Ages possess a diploma could only children of wealthy peasants and nobles.

Despite the fact that the language and speech - different concepts, they are closely linked.It is impossible without language.If the language does not have a voice of expression, he dies.This is due primarily to the fact that languages ​​are deprived of their carriers and therefore does not have a voice of expression.

Speech and language - two terms most frequently used in linguistics and psychology.He devoted a lot of work, treatises and research.The most famous work of Lev Vygotsky, on the problem of language and thought.