to make his speech in a foreign language, expressive, correct and diverse, as well as to learn to understand what they say (write) other people, you must know English pronouns.Table (more than one) is presented in this article with the necessary explanations, to facilitate assimilation of grammatical material.
What pronoun and what you need to
This part of the speech used in any language to avoid tautology, revive dry statements and make them more logical.Pronouns in English called Pronouns, which translates as "instead of nouns."
This service component performs the function of a substitute for those parts of speech that have already been mentioned in the oral or written text.Replaces may nouns and adjectives, a little less - adverbs and numerals.Pronouns help us to maintain the consistency and clarity of thought, but it is not repeated, calling back the same people, objects, events, features and so on. D.
What are the pronouns in the English
There are eight types of these service parts of speech.Next, we look at each of them separately
English pronouns, like Russian, changing the face, gender and number.In addition, they are sure to be agreed with that part of the speech, which replaces.For example, on the basis of coordination of the genus: girl (girl) - she (it).Similarly, coordination is carried out including: boys (boys) - they (they).
Now let's look in more detail what constitutes each species and how this utility succeeds to simplify the parts of speech in English.
Personal Pronouns (Personal Pronouns)
its name because they have that replace nouns - animate and inanimate.A total of seven.
- I - I;
- you - you (you);
- he - he is;
- she - she;
- it - it;
- we - we;
- they - they are.
Pay attention to the following features:
1. You used both in singular and plural.Translated, respectively, "you", "you" (the reference to a single person) or "you" (the reference to a group of people).
2. It refers not only to inanimate objects, but also animals.
The above are the personal pronouns in the nominative case.But what if you want to say "you", "me", "us", and so on. F.?The fact that the Russian language is transferred to the rest of the case (dative, genitive, prepositional and so on. D.), The English called in one word - the subject case.These pronouns are replaced with the words in a sentence are not subject to.Table of conformity is shown below.
Who?What?Who?What?By whom?What?Of whom?About what?
me - me, me, me, and so on. N.
you - you (you) you (you), and so on. N.
him - he, his, and so on. n.
her - she, her, and so on. n.
it - he, his, and so on. n.
us - we, us, and so on. n.
them - them,and so it. n.
start practicing in the subject case used when thoroughly will understand and learn the nominative form.Otherwise, you simply run the risk of confusing.In general, remember pronouns quite simple, and the more you practice a foreign language, the more confident will begin to say.
Possessive pronouns (Possessive Pronouns)
This group - the second most common use.But do not be afraid to see the new English pronouns.The table below shows the correspondence between the types of personal and possessive.
I - I
my - my
you - you (you)
your - your (your)
he - he
his - his
she - she
her - her
it - it
its - its
we - we
our - our
they - they
their - their
As you can see, the basis of almost all the pronounsone, and differences often only one letter.
recommended to learn and work in the exercises first personal pronoun, then possessive, and then work out in the mixed test where you have to choose a suitable within the meaning and grammar option: you or your, and so on. F. So you firmly all learned and neverYou will confuse these two seemingly similar groups.
Demonstrative pronouns (Demonstrative Pronouns)
continue to learn the pronouns in English, and now go to the same species, which helps to orient in space, show a certain object, direction and location.They do not change the faces and leave, but they have the singular and plural.The table you see the demonstrative pronoun English translation.
For example, if the distance to the wall hangs a picture, then speak about it: That is a picture.And if there are crayons on the table, it can be described as follows: These are pencils.
There is another feature of this group of service parts of speech.They can replace single words or even whole expression.This is done to avoid duplication.For example: Air quality in the village is better than that in the city - Air Quality in the village better than the (air quality) in the city.
Relative pronouns (Relative Pronouns)
this species can often be found in complex sentences to connect the main and subordinate part.This pronoun English translation and understanding of foreign speech can create complexity.Therefore, you need a good look into the matter.The following relative pronouns:
- that - that which (used to refer to both animate and inanimate objects);
- which - which is (only to refer to objects or phenomena);
- who - who is who (refers only to individuals);
- whom - who who who (in the spoken language is not found, is only used in an official speech as speech cliches).
Interrogative pronouns (Interrogative Pronouns)
As you might guess, this type is used in interrogative sentences.If you are already familiar with the theme of "Special Issues" means the English pronoun you know well.All of them are remarkable in that start with letter combinations wh:
- what?- what?What?who?
- which?- What?which (of the two)?
- who?- Who?
- whom?- To whom?Who?
- whose?- Whose?
Sometimes it may add a suffix -ever, and then get a combination of whatever (whatever, whatever), whoever (anyone who has anything), and so on. D.
Pay special attention to the following features.
Who uses the singular verb form suggests and is, as well as the ending -s in this simple time.
Who is there?Who likes this film?
exception is when using the personal pronoun in the plural (you, we, they), if the answer involves the naming of a few people, objects, events, and so on. N.
Who are you?
Who of you live in this house?- We do.(How many of you live in the house? - We have.)
Indefinite pronouns (Indefinite Pronouns)
Often there are situations when the information is not completely clear, or the speaker is not sure of its veracity.For such cases, there is a special group of function words.Then you can see all the vague pronoun English translation.
anybody, anyone - anyone, anyone
anything - anything, anything
everybody, everyone - everyone, everyone
everything - everything
no one, nobody - nobody
nothing - nothing, nothing
someone - someone
something - something
other - other
either - anyone (with a choice of two)
neither - neither (with a choice of two)
each - each
Please note that all of the pronouns in the table refer to the singular (even if the Russian translation represent a lot of people or objects).
plural indefinite pronoun is represented by the following words:
- any - any;
- both - the two;
- several - a few;
- others - others rest;
- many - a little;
- few - a little.
Reflexive Pronouns (Reflexive Pronouns)
used to refer to actions that occur with himself.These English pronouns associated with the already known species - personal and possessive.Only in this case, the particles are added -self (singular) or -selves (plural).
- (I) I - myself;
- (you) you - yourself;
- (he) he - himself;
- (it) she - herself;
- (it) it - itself (about animals and inanimate objects);
- (we) we - ourselves;
- (you) you - yourselves;
- (they) they - themselves.
How to translate reflexive pronouns?In all examples, it is understandable.
Sometimes it can be translated as "self", "Statement", and so on. D.
«Why?», She asked herself - «Why?" - She asked herself.
We arranged a great holiday for ourselves - we have treated themselves to a great vacation.
In some cases, these pronouns can be translated with recurrent particles -s and Xia.
A cat washed itself - Cat washed.
Where are you hiding yourself?- Where are you hiding?
In cases where highlights the fact that the action was carried out by someone yourself, you can translate the reflexive pronouns with the words "he", "she", and so on. N.
He has built this house himself - He built this house.
reciprocal pronoun (Reciprocal Pronouns)
This type includes two representatives of all: each other and one another.They are synonymous.
pronouns used in cases when two objects make the same action directed at each other.
We love each other - We love each other.
They hugged and kissed one another - they hugged and kissed.
On Christmas day the friends gave each other presents - At Christmas, friends gave each other gifts.
In cases where it is necessary to designate a group of people who commit the same action with respect to each other, you must use a form of one another.For example:
We are a united family and always help one another.- We are a friendly family and always help each other.
People of different generations have difficulties in understanding one another - People of different generations is difficult to understand each other.
Here is the system of pronouns in English.It is no big deal, as some groups of words formed from the service of others: reflexive and possessive - the personal, mutual - from indefinite, and so on. D.
study and understand the theory, start to practice in a variety of exercises.The more often you do it, the sooner you reach a significant result: start did not hesitate to use in his speech, English pronouns.