From the very beginning of our existence, we constantly see around manifestations of life.Young children learn to walk and talk, naming different animals, insects, watching them in the wild.Becoming older, every child begins to realize that around the huge and very rich world of living beings.After all, plants, animals and insects, and fungi - it all live.Getting to know this wonderful world, we become wiser, more mature and learn to be responsible.
Still later, when the children go to school, they learn that biology - the science that studies all these organisms, their lives, interact with each other and with the environment.And this science is exploring the impact that people and wildlife at each other.
etymology of the word "biology"
interesting that the roots of the term "biology" goes back to the ancient indoevreyskim nation whose word "leg" meant to "collect", "choose".Later, having undergone a lot of transformations, the term has become more close to the real sound.The ancient Greeks used the word "bios", which means "life" and the word "logos", translated as "teaching".It is easy, combining two concepts, get almost the definition of "biology".It is a science that studies the life, generally speaking, and surfactants.In fact, the concept is very big, and science itself is extremely fascinating.
What is biology, and she is studying?
All of our planet is made up of several shells.One of them is the biosphere.In turn, the biosphere is composed of biomass and biomass represented the totality of living beings on the planet, regardless of the size and habitat.So, it is an object of the biomass and the study of biology.But since it is extremely diverse in the number of individuals on how they interact with each other and on other grounds, there is a need in the division of biology departments.And over time they grew into a whole separate science.
What science is studying biology?Try to understand.Basic few, and they have a great importance to the life of people.Biology covers all aspects of the life of living beings, both external and internal.Therefore, science, spin-off from it so much.
Molecular biology is the study of the most important processes of protein synthesis, mechanisms of storage and transmission of genetic information, genetic code and its structure.Objects of the study of molecular biology are all living systems, which contain the protein, nucleic acid (DNA and RNA).These systems include prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses.
Current status of molecular biology at the level of intensive development.It has already received a lot of information about the structure of protein molecules, their properties and functions performed in the biomass.Deciphered the processes of transcription and translation, replication of the DNA molecule, deciphered the genetic code.But the modern molecular biology did not even think to stop.After all, as it turned out, protein diversity is so great that it will be enough for a thorough analysis and laboratory study has for many years ahead.
engaged in the study of the smallest living systems, not visible to the naked eye (bacteria, viruses, microfungi, microalgae, Archaea).Thanks to the achievements and work of many great scholars of this science was able to step far ahead.Today
crops bacterial environment solid on special nutrient media are not something unique.Obtain a pure culture of bacteria - it means to gain access to management.Naturally, it is of great importance for medicine and pharmacy.This is a chance to find a way of getting rid of harmful microorganisms.
is why microbiological research products are so popular in:
- food industry;
- oil and gas processing;
- steel industry.
young science that gave rise to even more young and progressive - gene and cell engineering.Studies and develops methods of cultivating pure cultures as well as the development of technologies in viva and in vitro, allowing the use of the bacterium as useful human sources of energy, food, mates in agriculture and other industries.
This science is closely linked to microbiology, they are substantially related.Therefore, the results of biotechnology - are important aspects to take into account the production of drugs of different agricultural products.In addition, biotechnology provides an answer to questions relating to plant resistance to parasites, environmental conditions.
Gene and Cell Engineering, in turn, also make it clear that studying biology as a science.They are also based on living systems, but their goal is to have concrete and practical focus on the result, certainly a useful person.
method of embedding into the cell of foreign genes bearing a pre-planned by engineers information, produce the necessary products of higher quality and much more (for example, in the case of plants, the development of genetic engineering allow to receive two or three harvests per season).
extensive and extremely important part of biological science that studies the mechanisms of inheritance of traits, the essence of variation, inheritance, the patterns of distribution and transmission of genes from parents to offspring, as well as the identification of chromosomal mutations and the consequences of their impact on the organisms living beings.
Genetics covers the diversity of living systems, from insects and finishing plants and animals.It does not apply only to viruses and bacteria as well as objects of study of a different section of biology.
It begins with the 1930s.A lot of scientists from the USA, France, the Soviet Union and Russia in the present and put his years of work in the development of this exciting, mysterious, still very young, but very promising science.
main objective is to establish a space biology differences in the functioning of living biological systems on Earth and in a completely opposite - space.Thus, space biology - the science that studies the behavior, internal changes, physiology and morphology of living beings in the changed conditions of the environment - in outer space.
main factors that distinguish the conditions of outer space from the earth, the following:
- different gas environment;
- weightlessness of space;
- limited mobility;
- change in the magnetic field.
Space biology examines how did all of these factors affect the living beings, who grew up on Earth, and whether the life on other planets earthlings.
Space biology - the science complex, therefore, it consists of several parts:
- space physiology.
- Space Medicine.
General Biology, Embryology
science that studies the levels of organization of all living things and the gradual origin and development of every living creature - a general biology.In this science includes the following sections:
- evolutionary theory;
General biology - the science of life of all living things, its formation and development for millions of years, the origin of man, his establishment in society and development as a biological unit.
main course in general biology taught in the school curriculum of the senior classes.
As part of the general biology stands embryology.She is studying a phased-natal formation of each living creature.Also, it proved embryologists study similarities and unity of all living beings on the planet.
cytology, histology, cytology organology
(another name - cellular biology) - the science that studies animal, plant, bacterial cells, viruses, and fungal cells, structure, and function of all vital functions of living cells, the processes of life in them.
Any cells in multicellular eukaryotic systems are formed in the fabric.And this is another object of study section extensive biological science - histology.Plant and animal tissues, their formation, interoperability, features, and so on - the object of study histology.What
in plants that animal tissues form organs.How is this process, what is the basis and what the physiological, morphological and biochemical processes accompanied by studying science organology.
Together, they are part of the total of the whole.They are united by biology.It is a science that studies everything.Scale and scope of the objects of study, she is just incredible.
zoology, botany, anatomy
school biology course involves the study of the foundations of sciences such as zoology, botany and anatomy.And this is natural.After all, the whole biology is based on these main sections.
Zoology examines the diversity, structure and behavior of the animals, all the representatives of the animal world, ranging from single-celled and ending mammals.
Botanica is exploring the diversity of plant organisms, their communities, physiology and external signs, as well as the distribution and origin.
Anatomy - the science based on the study of the internal structure of all living things, regardless of affiliation to a particular realm of nature.
combination of these sections is the biology.This is the science that studies all aspects of the biomass of the planet.Interesting, is not it?
Thus, it is easy to conclude that the extraordinary diversity of knowledge that gives us the biology as a science.The role of biology in the life of modern man is infinitely great and significant, as evidenced by the vastness and complexity of its member sciences.