Accounting records - this is a special method of grouping the object of observation on economic grounds, allowing reliably reflect the primary, the final state and the change of accounting items during business transactions.The account is opened for all kinds of assets, income, capital, liabilities, costs.They are divided into regulatory and self-employed.
There are certain rules of accounting records, which are fundamental in any accountant.In order to understand how the whole system of accounting, it is necessary to understand the very essence of the concept of "account".
The term "expense accounting" refers to a specific method of economic group, allowing monetary assessment systematize current information on various indicators of economic activity.He is the storage of information, which is then used to generalize and compilation of different aggregates, the financial statements.On the basis of the aggregate of all accounts is the main statements of the enterprise - the balance sheet.
All accounts have names and numbers which are determined by the so-called "Chart of Accounts".Each of them reflected on the principle of homogeneity of grouped objects.Homogeneous types of funds and their sources are shown on those accounts, which are reflecting the character of the information.The "chart of accounts" indicate codes, names all kinds of accounts and comments on their use.
Accounting records and accounts are kept in monetary terms.All these records are carried out in strict chronological order (in order of the date of the business transaction) according to primary documents.
Each account balance is divided into 2 parts:
- left - debit, designated "D" or "DR";
- the right side - a loan designated "R" or "CR".
«Debit" in Latin means "should" and "credit" is translated as "believe".
displayed on any account of economic and financial transactions entail an increase or decrease of a certain group of funds.Each of the parties is designed to separate the display decrease or increase the amount.All amounts reflected on his left side, called debit and recorded on the right side - the credit.
accounts schematically depicted in this form:
In accounting, there is also such a thing as a "double entry".This concept involves the reflection of all operations on at least two accounts.Thus, any change in the records of the account will automatically be reflected in other accounts, with which it "corresponds".This outcome debit entries equals total credit entry.This rule follows the balance equation: total assets always equal the sum of liabilities and capital of the enterprise.
The monthly results of (the remains of) accounts are maintained in the "General Ledger", which reflects the information for each of them over the years.It recorded the initial (incoming) Balance (surplus) accounted object, then point to his debit and credit for the change last month (turnover), and then outputs the remainder at the end of the period.Since the balance is the difference between the engine speeds it can be a debit or credit balance.
In accounting, there is a unit of account in the passive, active, active-passive.In the accounts of active reflect information on all types of property and other means of organization (fixed assets, goods, money).On the passive accounts reflect the information on the sources of assets and liabilities of the organization (charter and other capital payments on loans).Active accounts only have a debit balance, and passive - only credit.
addition to these bills, there are those in which both reflect the information about the assets and sources of its formation (profit / loss calculations with buyers and sellers).They are called "active-passive".Their balance (balance) can be debit and credit.