In the XIX century, China has pursued a policy of isolation from the West.As a result, trade between East and West has sharply decreased.China is guided by the intention to get rid of the negative influence of Western ideas on the people of the East.Until 1830 only Guangzhou port remained open to foreign vessels, and the Chinese are traded only in silver.In this situation, the British merchants, seeking to correct the trade imbalance, adopted a decision on the import of opium - a product that was not the Chinese, but they really wanted to have it.Until 1828, China was enriched in silver due to its exotic goods that are purchased by merchants from Europe.
Law of the Chinese empire was banned drug except for medical purposes.But, despite this, the British Hong Kong bought the opium, which made the province of Bengal and Malwa under the auspices of the British East India Company.Because of this flow of opium to China increased more than fourfold.In 1833, the British government removed the monopoly of the
Soon, 90% of men and 40 years China had opiate addiction.By 1837, China had paid for the opium of 4.5 million silver dollars, accounting for 57% of total imports of the country.Konfiskator Emperor Lao Lin Jie-hee found that in 1839 the Chinese opium spent 100 million taels.They were, he concluded that if opium dependence will continue to spread throughout the country, China will soon not only have nothing to defend, but not on that.There originate Opium Wars.Illegal importation of opium into China is punishable by death, but from 1821 till 1837 it has increased five times.Port of Guangzhou, where flourished bribery, vice and lack of respect for authority, has become a point of conflict of interests between the two countries.
First Opium War
In 1839 an emissary of Emperor Tao Lin Tszesyuy received in respect of foreign merchants and their Chinese associates operational measures.Were arrested 1,600 people and seized 11,000 pounds was opium.It was the first of what proved to be the Opium Wars.
In June of the same year, was captured in 2000 crates of opium, detained them involved foreign merchants.These merchants had been detained for as long as they have not given opium 9 million.Money was publicly burned.Opium War brewing more clearly.
By order of Lin Tszesyuya port was closed to foreign ships.In response, Charles Elliott blocked the Pearl River.This was followed by a naval battle.Chinese propagandists called him victorious, but it was followed by the Royal Navy operation that destroyed a large number of Chinese vessels.
In January 1841 the fort was taken Bogvi.As a result, Britain gained control of the hill above the port.A little later, the British took over and on land.Imperial troops were poorly trained for military action, and the British defeated them in Ningbo and Qinghai.Soon, under the control of England it was a province of China and South Chzhentszyan.
peace at any price
In 1841, the port was sold to England.By mid-1840, the Chinese government was forced to sign a number of agreements, under which the British gained control of the western coast of China.Under the contract of 1842, China yielded to Britain Hong Kong, opened five ports for British merchants took English trading conditions and to pay compensation for damage to the merchants.English merchants continue to not obey Chinese laws and can act freely in China.
selling opium at bargain prices started before the end of the peace talks.All restrictions on the drug trafficking have been erased by 1858 year.As a result, China has begun an independent poppy cultivation, and the beginning of 1900 to provide for themselves every year 22,000 tons of opium.
Second Opium War
However, new clashes were inevitable under the circumstances.Opium Wars in China did not end with the adoption of a peace treaty.In 1854, Britain demanded the opening of all ports of China to trade, legalizing the importation of opium, the British release of goods from customs duty, as well as permission to establish an embassy in Beijing.
In 1856, the Chinese authorities have been detained ship Arrow.He was suspected of smuggling and piracy.The UK authorities insisted that the vessel is not under the authority of Chinese law, and demanded the release of the sailors.
In 1857, in Canton were sent British troops.Against China at that time turned against America, Russia, France.But Britain and France without the knowledge of other countries have captured the port of Canton.In 1858, the port was taken Taku.After this, military operations have stopped.This has resulted in the discovery of 11 ports to trade with the West.Western missionaries were free to draw Chinese people to the Christian faith.China was obliged to pay compensation to France and Britain in the amount of 10 million taels and give control of the port of Kowloon UK.In addition, China has been forced to export cheap labor in North America, so that took such a rapid and cheap construction of the railway USA.Opium Wars in China led to the division of the country by Western countries, undermine religious values and the fall of the ruling dynasty.