Natural resources - those units and systems (animate and inanimate nature) that are used by mankind for their livelihoods, as well as to satisfy their material and cultural needs.
Human civilization has been using nature for his own purposes, and the higher the degree of spread of technocracy, the greater the need of natural resources.Also affect the consumption of PR and demographic characteristics: more people require more consumption of natural elements and systems.
Natural Resources: classification
Some researchers (eg, Protasov) use only three parameters to classify natural resources: Resources for use in the production and the degree of exhaustion.Even more narrow classification refers to the natural and industrial typological principle, which is determined by exhaustion and from this starting point being identified.We propose to consider a broader view of the classification.
Classification of natural resources by origin
- natural ingredients.It includes components of animal, plant and soil and water resources, mineral and climate.
- natural-territorial (complexes).They are distinguished by the complex structure of the elements: water management, mining and industrial complex.
As we can see here the origin of the PR is divided into 2 types: Single components are separated from the complex elements.
Classification of natural resources by kinds of economic use
This includes resources for use in agriculture or industry.In the first case of water used for irrigation, the land for the cultivation of plant resources or placing animals.Ieto agricultural resources include land, vegetation and climate.
for industrial use as energy (fossil fuels), and non-energy resources (water, forest, land, minerals).
Classification of natural resources exhaustion
There are three categories:
- not fully renewable;
- not renewable.
PR is non-renewable petroleum, land and minerals.Currently, scientists are working on methods to solve this problem, but to eradicate it completely at the present stage is not possible.
not completely renewable resources belong to the flora and fauna.So, there is a red book, which listed endangered species.In developed countries it occurs sponsoring environmental sector, which deals with an increase in populations of endangered species.
Renewable resources are not a problem for our civilization, they include those animals and plants, the number of which is under the control of and responsible economic consumption.
Classification of Natural Resources of substitutability
you allocate only 2 kinds of PR:
The first category includes those resources that can be replaced by other (for example, fuel replaced by other substances, and energetic materials).
irreplaceable relates primarily air and fresh water.These resources, if they are not finding a replacement may be in the future one of the biggest problems of mankind, for without them life is impossible.
Thus, based on the general classification, it can be concluded that the characterization of natural resources depends primarily on how to meet any activity it was created: for example, production targets imply an assessment of raw materials that can be used for production.For the scientific classification of the PR characteristic generalized sharing of resources with a broad scope: from the atmosphere and ending with groundwater.Economic classification focuses on the plant, water, land and animal resources.However, there is one option that combines all kinds of classification: the potential, which includes a range prospects for the use of a resource.