vast majority of people are combined into certain groups and collectives.Why is that?As for other living beings, for the survival of people is their interaction.One man unlikely to be able to achieve significant results by acting alone.
all types of social groups according to their ordering can be divided into a few basic: the crowd, the public and social organization.
crowd - a spontaneous gathering of people that occurs suddenly.These people are usually united by common interests and desires - for example, this applies to the excited football fans or members of a political rally.As soon as the cause disappears, forcing them to come together, this temporary group disappears.The crowd - a completely unorganized gathering of people that move the emotions.Therefore, it is often a destructive force and a lot less - creative.
audience different from the crowd in that it is conditional in this association of people connected not emotions and instincts, and the general opinion, as well as members of the public may be geographically are disconnected.
Social organization - this is a special group, which is characterized by the closed and hierarchical, whose members are united by the same goals.It differs from crowds or public its internal consistency, the presence of a set of specific rules, coordination of its members, a common goal and a common activity.
structure of the organization, the purpose of its activities and existence - the two main points on which the type of organization, its viability, effectiveness, and so forth.
has long been observed that the performance of work combined forces of several people is much more effective than the simple addition of the efforts of thesepeople doing the same thing alone.In the first case, the results of the actions of each member of the team can be strengthened by the support of others, consistency of work.The effectiveness of the organization increases many times if there the principle of division of labor.Take, for example, a football team.In it, in addition to the attackers, there are goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders and forwards;If each player served and shot, and a defender, and striker, the effectiveness of the whole team would have fallen sharply.
Social organizations relate mainly to the secondary group, ie,to formalize.The primary concern is bringing people associated primarily interpersonal relationships.With regard to the objectives of such associations, they are of three types.The first concerns the action programs, which are issued by institutions of higher rank.The objectives of the system are a set of goals of all team members.And the third type, affecting the operation system, combines the desire to preserve and develop the organization.These three types are major objectives.
With the development of civilization there were new types of organizations.Tom contributed to the emergence of industrialization, social instability, new forms of government and the globalized world.Types of organizations that have emerged relatively recently - it is a corporation, syndicates, trade unions and so forth. And such as government institutions, clubs, forestry and so on. - Were known long before them.
types of organizations differ in their causes, aims and structure.They are many, but identified a number of key species.
main types of social organizations: the charismatic, total voluntary, bureaucratic.
concern the first group, managed a strong leader, stand out as an individual.Relationship to the members of this association depends on how close they are it.Leader, as a rule, if you do not adore, then at least highly valued.The clearest example of such a union - is Jesus Christ and his followers, that is,the first Christian community.
Voluntary organizations are not connected with the state bodies, membership is completely voluntary, formed to meet the specific interests of its members.The most striking example - the trade unions.
to the total may include governmental, religious, national and so forth.
administrative (bureaucratic) function strictly according to the rules that govern the distribution of responsibilities among its members.There is a chain of command.In such organizations, it is important to establish business relations between the parties for the successful achievement of overall activities.An example of this type of social institution - the government.
By rationality in the pursuit of common goals, there are those types of organizations: rational and traditional.The latter include, for example, religious.