second signal system is inherent in man, and is a system of speech signals, a form of higher nervous activity.More Pavlov put forward the concept of the differences in the brain of humans and animals.Thus, inherent in the development of an animal of the first signaling system, since their brain responds only to audio, visual and other stimuli.Man addition has the ability to generalize the first signals of the word.This ability enables a person to navigate the world around him.The process of generalization occurs due to the formation of conditioned connections, and depends on their number and nature.
second signal system formed in the course of evolution under the influence of communication with other people, so an important role is played here by the social factor.For example, in human behavior huge role occupied by the social reaction.
should be noted that in the formation of speech attended by three areas of the cerebral cortex - motor analyzer, auditory and visual.
first begins to form the auditory analyzer, it is on the back of the left temporal gyrus.If the department violated any pathology, lost the ability to perception of the meaning of words, but the ability to perceive sounds as separate words is stored.Because the analyzer is connected to the other two departments analyzers, lost the ability to read and write.
motor analyzer is in the bottom of the central gyrus.With his defeat there is paralysis of motor muscles of speech, which leads to utrachivaniyu ability to pronounce words.
second signal system is the result of human activity of the cerebral cortex.Her work is connected with the activities of the first signaling system and gets in her reinforcements, so regulate the life of man, controlling his emotions.
voice playback device is connected with the development of relations with the centers of the speech motor areas.It plays an important role physical activity, for example, coordinated movements of the fingers.That is why developing such coordinated action can accelerate the process of formation and development of speech.
can say that second signal system showing the first signs of development in the first year of life.First of all generated sensory mechanisms of speech that contribute to the perception of words, then develop motor mechanisms that are associated with the ability to speak.As soon as the mature cerebral hemispheres of the brain, improving mobility and strength of the nervous processes, which promotes the formation of conditioned connections associated with the maturation of the associative paths that unite the cortical centers of the brain.It is also necessary for the formation of mature speech peripheral device - tongue, the muscles of the lips and throat, soft palate, and their joint activities.These bodies provide the ability to utter articulate sounds, that is, the articulation.
Thus, second signaling system does not develop without the development of peripheral device.
To distinguish the external speech, written and interior.Outside it is a means of communication between people, it is constructed in a way that was understandable for the listener.It is aimed at the inner self, it plays a role in the development of thinking.Self-awareness and consciousness.Writing is expressed in the ability to read and write, it is closely connected with the inner speech.
Thus, first and second signaling systems allow a person to perceive the world through the senses and speech.The development and operation of the second signal system is the result of the work of the cerebral cortex, especially its big hemispheres.