the continent its name derived from the Latin language.In it the word "southern" in tune with the name of Australia.And it is no coincidence, because it is entirely in the southern part of the globe.In total area, occupied, (which is about 7.6 million sq. Kilometers) of Australia is rightly considered the smallest continent on the planet.For this reason, some scientists tend to rank it to the continents, islands.Most of the shores washed by the salty waters of the Indian Ocean, and only one, the east - the Pacific Ocean.
continent is at a great distance from the other regions of the world, so most of the trade routes from it passes away.The banks are not rich in the deep bays, the most convenient of which are located in the south-east.There is the main port area of the Australian continent.The waters around Australia, warm even in winter - not less than 20 degrees Celsius.This creates a favorable environment for the existence of coral off the coast of which the continent is growing in abundance.It is for this reason that stretches along the coast of Australia, the famous Grand Reef, reaching a length of more than two thousand kilometers.
Because of its geographical location, Australia is a separate continent.This is largely influenced its development both in terms of culture and diversity of species of animals and plants.
Relief and Minerals Australia
last continent was not separated from the total mainland as now, Australia was part of Gondwana.But by the end of the Mesozoic era, it was separated and became gradually move away until it reached the current situation.Now the basis of the Australian continent is dokebriyskaya platform, the foundation of which has a crystalline structure.In some areas of the continent it is coming to the surface, forming boards, especially in the northern, western and central regions.But a large part of the platform is hidden under a layer of sediment, are equally maritime and continental origin.
most striking elements of the relief of the Australian mainland are the following: central lowlands, the height of which is less than a hundred meters above sea level;East Australian mountains have at its core the Great Dividing Range (up to thousands of kilometers in height) and the Western Plateau.It is also the only continent in the world where there oledenevshih top of the mountains and active volcanoes are completely absent.While in the past there was a violent tectonic activity.This is indicated by the extensive basin and cones of the once ancient volcanoes erupted.
Minerals Australia are rich in diversity.Geological discoveries made in just the last ten years, managed to push her in the first place for the extraction of iron ore, bauxite, lead and zinc ores.Ore minerals of Australia on the map displayed near Hamersley.Deposits from this range are designed for more than half a century, and will not get any exhausted in the foreseeable future.Iron ore is also mined in the largest island continent - Tasmania, and the smaller islands in the north-west.
Polymetallic Minerals Australia, which include, in particular, zinc and lead alloy of copper and silver, located in the desert areas of the state of NSW.Another important center of production of base metals is Queensland and has called the island of Tasmania.Small deposits are scattered across the continent, but not everywhere being such an active mining, in these key points.Furthermore, in Australia contains considerable reserves of gold.The largest areas are in the protrusion of the foundation, the fine can be found in almost any state in the country.
State South Wales is famous also for its extensive deposits of coal.Although the mineral resource has throughout the eastern part of the continent, the main development falls on the city of Wales.In addition to the above, it has recently been discovered a lot of oil and gas fields, located deep in the bowels of the Australian mainland.Some of them have been successfully developed in recent years.Also, the country is actively mining chromium, clay, sand and limestone.