The list of hydrocarbons, methane, acetylene, play an important role in various areas of chemical industry.Initially, methane poses no practical interest.He was called and marsh and damp in the place where it is most often found in nature.Typically, this compound gives a lot of trouble because of their physical and chemical properties.Colorless and odorless methane could cause a person and a slight indisposition, and even serious poisoning.But especially a lot of trouble for its ability to deliver the gas to mix with air to form a flammable cocktail with great destructive powers.
Despite the fact that methane found many ways to use, the production of this substance by the industry has no value.The fact that this compound is not only common in nature, but is a companion (side) of the product in various industrial processes of modern chemical industry.
Berthelot in 1860 was able to carry out the reaction, which later gained great industrial importance.But in those days the process that will lead to the chemical shift, methane & gt;acetylene, it has not received much enthusiasm.The fact that the need to ensure there is enough in acetylene carbide and method thereof.
modern chemical industry has found many ways to use acetylene.This gas cutting, and its use in chemical bright lamps, and application in the manufacture of a wide variety of chemicals.Acetylene claimed in obtaining a wide variety of explosive compounds and acetic acid, ethyl alcohol and solvents, and aromatic hydrocarbon rubber.A manifestation of the achievements of the twentieth century was the use of acetylene in the production of polymers.
Now is a good time to remember the chemical conversion of methane - acetylene.Elektrokreking and thermo-oxidative cracking - the name of the modern technological processes which will yield the acetylene from methane.In the former case, the methane gas jet passes through the electrodes under the temperature 1600 ° C and rapidly cooled.The second method for converting methane - acetylene, partial oxidation, favors the release of heat from the partial combustion of acetylene.
in the production chain, methane, acetylene, acetaldehyde last item appeared thanks to the hydration reaction of acetylene, which was subsequently called reaction Kucherov.Industrial Applicability acetaldehyde found to produce acetic acid, aldehyde polymers, butadiene number of organic substances.
But the substance itself is not safe enough acetaldehyde toxic even when applied to the skin.Performs a serious air pollutant which falls during combustion, for example, while smoking or automobile exhaust.A huge amount of it is formed by heat treatment of various polymers and plastics.Next
chain methane, acetylene, benzene, chlorobenzene is further confirmation of the active use of modern chemical industry bog or firedamp.We are already familiar with responses obtaining from it acetylene.It remains only to carry out the trimerization of this gas, C2H2 flowing over activated carbon at a temperature of 400 degrees Celsius.The resulting benzene goes industrial method for production of ethylbenzene, cumene, nitrobenzene and cyclohexane.About three percent of the substance is consumed in the preparation of linear alkyl benzenes.Only one percent benzene spend synthesis of chlorobenzene.For this purpose, it chlorination reaction.Conditions of its implementation is the temperature at 80-85 ° C and the presence of iron or iron chloride.