term "sociology" at the hearing of many people.The media can often hear information on that held a sociological survey of people on different issues or sociological services study public opinion regarding the economic or political issues.
As the science of sociology, philosophy stood out not so long ago, and is engaged in the study of society, the laws of its development, different social institutions and relations.And like any science, it is the object, subject and methods of the study.As the object is either society as a whole, or any part thereof or a group or a social institution.The subject of sociology - is a set of properties and characteristics of the object to which directed the study.A method - a way or methods by which the aim of the research is achieved.The method of observation in sociology and the study of the documents are the main, however, the most common method of sociology - a survey applied to the middle of the XIX century.This method is used to get the primary information and requires confirmation by other research methods.The object of the subject and method of sociology are well described in the works of domestic and foreign social scientists.
Everyone, without knowing it, uses the method of observing every day, for example, watching the children or other people.But the method of observation in sociology differs substantially from a simple observation.
Scientific observation has clearly defined goals, objectives and a plan of action and different systematic, planned and mandatory checks of results obtained in the research process.
method of observation in sociology requires mandatory implementation of certain rules: watch the object under study is necessary in various situations, under the supervision necessary to use precise indicators, in any case should not be confused with the description of the event in its submission.To achieve reliable results can be monitored independently of each other to carry out a few people.
method of observation in sociology has both advantages and disadvantages.The advantage of this method lies in the fact that the researcher is directly related to the object of study, and it allows you to get information quickly and provides an opportunity to capture some important details of the phenomenon under study.
Another important advantage that observation is its flexibility.The survey, the most common method in sociology, also prinosti interesting results.
All these advantages, plus the low cost of the method does not exclude its shortcomings, one of which is some subjectivity of perception, reflected in the fact that the observer directly or indirectly affect the results of the study.This leads to the fact that all of the results have to be rechecked by other methods.
There are several different kinds of observations.He had been formalized, unformalized included - in this case, the observer becomes a direct participant in the events (Journalist changes profession) or unincorporated, when monitoring is carried out by the full non-interference of the observer in what is happening.
Under natural conditions, are carried out so-called field research and monitoring, and laboratory are conducted in specially created conditions and are usually carried out in the framework of ongoing experiments.
Different types of observations there are many, and in some cases, for example in the study of fast processes, disasters or armed conflict, they may be the only method of studying objective reality.