anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) - weapons intended mainly to combat enemy armored vehicles.It can also be used to destroy fortified points, shooting at low-flying targets and for other tasks.
Guided missiles are an essential part of the anti-missile system (ATGM), which also includes anti-tank launcher and guidance systems.As a source of energy used by the so-called solid fuel and warhead (warhead) often equips shaped charge.
Since modern tanks began to equip armor and composite systems of active dynamic protection, new anti-tank missiles are also evolving.In place of a single tandem HEAT warhead came ammunition.Typically, these are two arranged one behind the other shaped charge.With their explosion formed two successive cumulative jets have better armor penetration.If a single charge "stitches" to 600 mm homogeneous armor, the tandem - 1200 mm or more.The elements of dynamic protection "quenched" only the first stream and the second destroys the ability to lose.
ATGM also can be equipped with a thermobaric warhead, which creates the effect of volumetric explosion.When triggered, sprayed aerosol explosives in a cloud, which then detonated, covering a substantial area of the fire area.
These types of munitions are anti-tank "Cornet" (Russian Federation), "Milan" (France-Germany), "Javelin" (USA) "Spike" (Israel) and others.
Despite the widespread use of hand-held anti-tank grenade launchers (RPGs) in the Second World War, they can not fully meet the infantry anti-tank defense.Increase the range of fire RPGs proved impossible because of the relatively slow speed of this type of ammunition range and accuracy did not meet the requirements of the effectiveness of the fight against armored vehicles at a distance of over 500 meters.Infantry units require an effective anti-tank weapons, capable of destroying tanks at long distances.In order to solve the problem of accurate long-range shooting was created ATGM - Anti-tank guided missile.
first studies on the development of high-precision missile weapons began in the 40s of the twentieth century.A real breakthrough in the development of new types of weapons the Germans made, creating in 1943 the world's first X-7 anti-tank systems Rotkaeppchen (means "Little Red Riding Hood").With this model, the story begins anti-armor guided missile system.
proposed the creation Rotkaeppchen firm BMW »addressed to the command of the Wehrmacht in 1941, but suitable for the German situation at the front was the reason for the refusal.However, in 1943, to the creation of such a rocket had yet to begin.Works were supervised by Dr. Michael Kramer, who worked for the Ministry of Aviation in Germany series aircraft missiles under the symbol «X».
Features X-7 Rotkaeppchen
In fact, the anti-missile X-7 can be considered as a continuation of a series of «X», because it has been widely used basic designs of missiles of this type.The housing had a length of 790 mm, diameter - 140 mm.The tail assembly was a rocket and two stabilizer fin mounted on the arcuate rod to exit from the zone of control surfaces hot gases of the solid (powder) engine.Both the keel was made as washers rejected plates (trimmers), which are used as elevators or rudders turn ATGM.
weapon for its time was revolutionary.To ensure the stability of the missile in flight, it rotates on its longitudinal axis at a speed two revolutions per second.With a special unit delay control signals fed to the control plane (trimmers) only when they are in position.In the rear was a power plant in the form of a dual-mode engine company WASAG.The cumulative warhead overcame 200 mm armor.
The system control unit included stabilization, switch actuators steering control, command and receiving unit, as well as two cable reels.The control system uses the method, which today is called as "method of the three points."
first generation ATGM
After the war, the victorious Germans used the operating time for the own production ATGM.Weapons of this type are found to be very promising for combating armored vehicles at the front, and from the middle of the 50s the first models joined the arsenals of the world.
first generation ATGM successfully proven themselves in military conflicts 50-70-ies.Since there is no documentary evidence of the use in hostilities of the German "Red Riding Hood" (although they produced about 300 pieces), the first guided missile, applied in a real fight (Egypt, 1956), became the model of the French Nord SS.10.In the same during the Six Day War in 1967 between the Arab countries and Israel have proved to be effective Soviet ATGM "Baby", the Soviet Union supplied the Egyptian army.
Application ATGM: Attack Weapons
first generation requires careful preparation arrow.Hovering warhead and then the remote control used the same principle of three points:
- crosshair Vizier;
- rocket trajectory;
- hit the target.
By carrying out the shot, the operator through a telescopic sight is to simultaneously monitor the reticle tracer projectile and a moving target, and to manually control commands.They are passed on board the missile through wires trailing behind her.Their use limits the rate of anti-tank: 150-200 m / s.
If in the heat of battle fragments interrupt the wire shell becomes unmanageable.Low airspeed allow armor to make evasive maneuvers (if the distance), and the calculation, forced to manage the trajectory of warhead, was vulnerable.However, the likelihood is very high - 60-70%.
second generation: the launch of anti-tank weapons
This is different from the first generation of semi-guided missiles at the target.That is, the operator removed the intermediate task - to follow the trajectory of the projectile.His job is to keep the aiming mark on the target, and "smart instruments" built into the missile itself sends a correction command.The system operates on the principle of two points.
also some second-generation anti-tank systems uses a new guidance system - the transfer of command of the laser beam.This greatly increases the range start and allows the use of rocket higher speed flight.
Managing second-generation anti-tank carried out in various ways:
- by wire ("Milan», ERYX);
- protected by a redundant radio frequency ("Chrysanthemums");
- by laser beam ("Cornet», TRIGAT, «Dehlavi").
two-point mode is possible to increase the probability of getting up to 95%, but in systems with wire control kept the speed limit warhead.
A number of countries have moved to the release of the third generation anti-tank, the main principle of which is the motto of the "fire and forget."The user simply aim and carry out start-up ammunition, and "smart" missile with thermal homing, operating in the infrared range, she will carry out guidance on the selected object.This system greatly improves maneuverability and survival of calculation and therefore affect the efficiency of the fight.
fact, these complexes produce and sell only the US and Israel.US 'Javelin »(FGM-148 Javelin),« Predator »(Predator), the Israeli" Spike »(Spike) - the most advanced portable ATGM.Information about the weapon indicates that most defenseless before them models of tanks.These systems not only leads to self-armored vehicles, but hit her in the most vulnerable part - the upper hemisphere.
advantages and disadvantages
principle of "fire and forget" increases the rate of fire and, therefore, mobility calculation.Also improves the performance of the weapon.The probability of hitting the target of third generation anti-tank theory is 90%.In practice, the possible use of the adversary system of optical-electronic suppression, which reduces the efficiency of homing missiles.In addition, a significant rise in price of on-board guidance equipment and equipping the missile infrared seeker has led to high cost of the shot.Therefore, at present only a few countries have adopted third-generation ATGM.
on the world arms market is Russian ATGM "Cornet".Thanks to laser control it belongs to a generation of "2+" (third generation in Russia is not).The complex has a decent performance on the ratio of "price / performance".If the use of expensive "Javelin" requires serious justification, that "Cornet", as they say, do not mind - they can be used most often in all modes of combat.His shooting range is quite high: 5,5-10 km.The system can be used in portable mode, and installed on the equipment.
There are several versions:
- ATGM "Cornet-D" - an improved system with a range of 10 km and armor penetration behind ERA 1300 mm.
- «Kornet-EM" - a deep modernization of the latter is able to shoot down aerial targets, in particular helicopters and drones.
- «Kornet-T" and "Cornet-T1" - self-propelled launchers.
- «Kornet-E" - the export version (ATGM "Cornet E").
Tula Arms experts although highly valued, yet has been criticized for a lack of effectiveness against armor composite and dynamic modern tanks of NATO.
Features modern ATGM
main task, which has set the latest guided missiles - hit any tank, regardless of the type of armor.In recent years, there has been a mini-arms race when competing tank builders and creators of ATGM.The weapon becomes more destructive, and armor - more durable.
Given the widespread use of combined protection in conjunction with a dynamic modern anti-tank missiles are also equipped with additional devices, which increase the probability of hitting targets.For example, the head missiles equipped with special nozzles that provide undermine cumulative munition at the optimum distance, providing an ideal formation of a cumulative jet.
typical was the use of missiles with tandem warheads to pierce the armor of tanks and combined with dynamic protection.Also, to expand the scope of ATRA made them missiles with thermobaric warheads.The anti-tank complexes 3rd generation used munitions that rise to great heights when approaching the target and attack it, swooping into the roof of the tower and the case where less armor protection.
For use indoors ATGM systems are used "soft start» (Eryx) - equipped with rocket boosters, which emit it at a low speed.After removal from the operator (trigger module) for a certain distance included boosters, which accelerates the projectile.
antitank system is an effective system to combat armored vehicles.They can be moved manually installed on armored vehicles and aircraft, and civilian vehicles.In place of ATGM 2nd generation come better homing missiles stuffed artificial intelligence.