The people of Dagestan: the culture, traditions and customs

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Dagestan - the republic of Russia, which is located in the southern region of the country.In addition, it is a multinational and unites 102 nationalities.They include both indigenous and visiting population.To include indigenous nationalities Avars, agultsev, Andi, Kubachins, Dargin, Laks, Rutul, Lezgins, Tabasarans, tsezov and others.

culture and traditions of the peoples of Dagestan are very diverse, they evolved over many years and passed from generation to generation.Each of these nations has its own peculiarities and differences that give them identity.


Maarulal or Avars - the people of Dagestan, numbering about 577 thousand. Man.They settled around the western Dagestan, especially in mountainous areas.Most of them are rural residents.They communicate on their Avar language, which has many dialects.The Avars are Muslim, but the elements of paganism in their faith is still present.They are sacred to nature, honor her and call for help, performing magic rituals.

traditional occupation for these people is cattle breeding and agriculture.The animals preferred bred cattle, and in the mountains - the sheep.Avars have developed a highly organized structure of terraced agriculture, which is in the mountains and is complemented by the irrigation system.Like the rest of the peoples of Dagestan, Avars active for a long time used the homemade crafts.These include weaving, embroidery, knitting wool, wood carving and stone blacksmith.


Agul people of Dagestan living in the southern part.The number of population is approximately 8-9 thousand. People.For communication they use the Aghul language, which is related to the Lezgin.This ethnic group lives in the settlement of 21 southeastern Dagestan.

tradition of this nation, as the traditions of the peoples of Dagestan as a whole, are unique.The main occupation for centuries to agultsev were cattle.Only men have the right to care for the sheep.Women are engaged exclusively in cattle.

Metalworking has been a very important aspect of life agultsev.Blacksmiths manufactured axes, scythes, knives and sickles, which will be useful in any household.Agultsy were excellent builders.They built bridges, houses and mosques.Adorn their buildings elaborately carved stones, ornaments that displays the entire culture of the peoples of Dagestan.

Andean group of people

Andi - is a group of nations, which includes such peoples of Dagestan as ahvahtsy, botlihtsy, Tyndall bagulaly, karata people, godoberintsy, chmalaly and, in fact, themselves Andi.The total number of people of these nationalities is 55-60 thousand. People.They live in the highlands of western Dagestan.Communication occurs in the Andean language with many dialects.

Religion Andi displays customs of the peoples of Dagestan, as the majority of the indigenous population are Sunni Muslims.The main occupations have also been agriculture and cattle breeding.Since ancient times these peoples homes were built of stone.A two-storey dwellings were not so many, had a one-story rectangular.Andi Those who were engaged in agriculture, have developed their agricultural calendar, which helped to determine the time of sowing and harvesting of certain plants.


Dargins - the people of Dagestan, traditionally inhabiting mountainous areas.Language, which would unite all Dargin, does not exist, variations Dargwa much.Customs and traditions of the peoples of Dagestan, as Dargin separately, are closely connected with the overall social and economic processes that took place in the ancient period of history.They were engaged in the usual for residents of the area activity, that is, cattle, agriculture and handicrafts.Dargins famous for its jewelery and leather-wool products, weapons.Women treated wool, weaving cloth and carpets.


These people live in a small Dagestani village Kubachi Dakhadayevsky District.Their number does not exceed 1,900.Besides Kubachins live in other settlements of Central Asia and the Caucasus.Their native language - Kubachi.Residents of the settlement mainly craftsmen.If they were grown products or graze cattle, it was of an auxiliary nature.

most common crafts have long been metal processing, construction, wood carving and stone.Women were engaged in knitting, weaving, embroidery, felting produced, which the master of shoes.Knowledge and skills in metal processing was transferred from father to son.It is interesting folk dances Kubachins that have been carefully designed to perform various rituals.


central part of Nagorno Dagestan inhabited one of the people - Laks.Language - Lak, religion - Islam.This nation since ancient times lived on the territory of Dagestan.Their main activity - growing wheat crops (rye, wheat, millet, oats, barley, etc.).Livestock has also been developed.From crafts were developed suknodelie, jewelry, pottery, stone processing silver and gold embroidery.Laks were famous traders, confectioners and acrobats.The rich and epic this nation.Word of mouth passed down stories of the great heroes of the past and how they have fought against evil.

Lezgins Lezgins compactly settled on the lands of Southern Dagestan.Their numbers in the area of ​​320 thousand. Man.Communication takes place in the Lezgin language, which is often modified by local residents.Lezghian mythology is rich in stories of gods who control nature.But it replaced paganism to Christianity, which after a while yet replaced Islam.

Like all peoples of Dagestan Lezgins grown crop plants, particularly wheat, rice and corn, bred livestock.Lezgins produced wonderful rugs that are known far beyond the borders of their region.Also common crafts were weaving, spinning, production of felt and jewelry.There are Lezgins and their folk dance - lezginka, which has become traditional for all the peoples of the Caucasus.


name of this nation comes from the largest settlement - Rutul, located in southern Dagestan.They say these people Rutul, but its dialects vary greatly among themselves.Religion is traditional for this area - Islam.Also, there are elements of paganism: the worship of mountains, the tombs of the saints.Another feature is that with Allah Rutuls recognize another, their own god Yinshli.


These people also live in southern Dagestan.Their number is equal to 90 thousand. Man.Tabasaranskiy language is divided into southern and northern dialects.Basic beliefs - Islam.Classes are also very traditional for the region - breeding and agriculture.Tabasaran are masters in weaving carpets, pottery, blacksmith, wood processing and manufacture of socks with different patterns.Suffice developed a variety of genres of folklore, such as the mythical legends and ritual songs.

Tsez group of people

By Tsez nations are ginuhtsy, bezhtintsy, tsezy, gunzibtsy and hvarshiny.No common language, people communicate in their own language.For these nations have long been of great importance had family ties of blood, the so-called tukhum.These associations help each member to select the most profitable game for a marriage.Of the products used milk, dried and fresh meat, cereals, flour, fresh and dried fruits.Although these peoples and Muslims, belief in jinn, goblins, devils and witches preserved.

Thus, Dagestan is the birthplace of many nations.The culture and traditions of the peoples of Dagestan and in our time has maintained its distinctive features, which makes them interesting for the study.Their faith combines the basic features of Islam and the remnants of pagan past, what makes them unique.