Howitzer: specifications.

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Since the advent of artillery in the arsenals of armies of different countries there was a need for specialization of different types of guns for their intended purpose.Continuous improvement of defensive fortifications, offensive techniques and tactics of warfare led to the division of powerful weapons into classes.

Ancient kamnemety

Actually, the siege device - distant ancestors artillery - helped the attacker to capture the Warriors castles and fortress long before the mass use of gunpowder.The catapults and ballista to report muzzle velocity (which is normally the stones, container of boiling tar, large stele, or logs) using the elastic properties of the stretched rope, in which the manufacture of metal wire weave.The momentum gained in the tightening is released at the time of the release of a special lock.At the same time, and there was the word "howitzer".Specifications "kamnemetnoy machine" (as with the German translation of a word Haubitz) were very modest, they shot a couple of tens of meters, and produced more psychological effect, although under certain conditions, and good skills of the calculations could easily cause a fire (if the shell was incendiary).Progress in the lethal devices has led to an increase in the role of remote lesions.

Classes artillery

Since the fourteenth century, European army began to use guns.Mortars at the time became the most powerful class of guns.Even their very ominous name (derived from the Dutch mortier, in turn borrowed the Latin root mort - «death») indicates a high lethal efficiency.Next, in descending order was howitzer technical characteristics of which (the weight of the projectile and distance) somewhat inferior to those of the mortars.The most widespread and mobile class considered gun (canon).Calibres different, but it was not just them.The main feature of the class structure of the barrel of guns was causing their appointment.In addition, the structure of which is the artillery of the army of a state, even then it was possible to draw conclusions about the strategic intentions and military doctrine of his government.

evolution of mortars and howitzers

In World War positional fighting prompted the warring parties to apply heavy siege guns.The word "mortar" fell into disuse soon after the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945.Thick short-freaks have given way to large-caliber mortars easier and attack bombers.After inclusion in the arsenal of almost all countries of missiles, including ballistic, the need to use heavy and clumsy tools trudnotransportiruemyh exhausted.The last attempt to apply their attempts to become German designers create some horrible monster for its size such as "Karl", who had a caliber of 600 mm.The main difference between this old class had a short trunk with thick walls.Large elevation approximately corresponds to modern mortar indicator.Kartuzny method of charging, remaining today mainly from powerful ship and shore guns, also contributed to the popularity of mortars.Explosives have a large specific surface, they are hygroscopic, and under real conditions front provide storage for a fixed humidity virtually impossible.But the mass of the projectile and the firing range howitzer became such that this class of artillery was quite possible to assign the functions that were previously performed mortar.

parabolic trajectory, or howitzers Why?

To answer this question, we should start to consider different classes of ballistic trajectory guns.Everyone knows that released with an initial linear velocity of the physical body, whether it is an ordinary stone or a bullet, flying is not in a straight line and a parabola.The parameters of this figure may be different, but the same increase in the starting pulse elevation will reduce the horizontal distance at which the subject will fly.The height will be maximum at a right angle to the horizontal, but in this case there is a risk that running a shell (or the same stone) will fall right on his head thrower.The steepness of the path, and there is much different from a howitzer cannon.It also defines and implements the appointment.

In what cases and what to shoot

If we assume that the enemy seeks to master the position of any army, it should be expected from the attack.In the pre-shelled fortified area flock tanks and infantry, supported by attack aircraft.In response, the defending side will apply countermeasures to fire from their own artillery and small arms.But if the attack is expected, it will be pre-built appropriate field fortifications, dug trenches full profile, built bunkers and pillboxes, firing sector impeded clearance defense zone.In general, each party will do anything to hinder the enemy's actions.In this situation, the fire on the ground deeper than the defending subunits can be conducted only on the path called hinged.Grazing (ie nearly parallel to the horizon) would be ineffective Shooting: Enemy soldiers are securely hidden behind parapets and other protective structures.Almost useless would be an ordinary gun.Howitzer, whose characteristics are mounted, will "smoke out" the defenders of the trenches and dugouts, heaping shells on their heads from the sky.From the firing of guns by those who defended.They need to destroy as many enemy tanks and soldiers running to the position.They seek to repel the attack.

caliber howitzer

problems of modern howitzer artillery far exceeded the previously defined circle.Curtain trajectory of the projectile is good not only to engage manpower, sheltered in trenches and dugouts, but also for other purposes.Fortified by its often thick layer of reinforced concrete and dug deep into the ground.The frontal armor of tanks and other armored vehicles capable of withstanding many armor means in the same time, the top she vulnerabilities more.If a conventional gun High accuracy is achieved due to the high muzzle velocity, is one of the conditions for reaching the last parameter is the relatively low weight of the projectile itself.Large caliber - that differs from the howitzer gun.For this class of tools needed 100-millimeter shells, and there are also larger.


Howitzer - a heavy weapon, and this is her property, combined with an offensive purpose creates certain difficulties.An example of it is quite successful application can serve as a famous B-4 (52-G-625), established in the thirties and has passed the entire war.Weight of guns, including carriage, barrel with sliding parts and swinging portion exceeds 17 (!) Tonnes.To move it, you need the tractor.In order to reduce the specific load on the ground is applied crawler.The caliber of the gun - 203 mm, or 8 inches.The projectile lift heavy, it weighs from 145 kilograms to quintals (concrete-option), so the supply of ammunition carried on a special roller conveyor.Calculation consists of fifteen people.At relatively low muzzle velocity (300 to 600 m / s) and range howitzer B-4 is greater than 17 km.The maximum rate - one shot in two minutes.The instrument has enormous destructive power that was demonstrated during the assault on the Mannerheim line during the Winter War with Finland.However, in a few years it became clear that the future belongs to the self-propelled artillery systems.


next step taken by the Soviet designers towards the creation of the most advanced self-propelled units, became the SU-152.It served as a such a response to the emergence of powerful armored German tanks equipped with long-barreled guns can fire at our equipment from a distance (kilometers or more).The surest way to destroy a well-defended goal seemed to cover its heavy shell flying hinged on a parabolic trajectory.Howitzer 152 mm caliber ML-20, mounted on the tank (HF) chassis with fixed wheelhouse and equipped with self-centering mechanism, a means proved capable of solving this problem.


post-war period in the military-technical aspect is characterized as a time of rapid growth of technological capabilities.In place of the piston aircraft engines comes jet thrust.Some of the tasks traditionally instructs the gunners begin to solve the missile troops.However, at the same time there is a correlation and reassessment of performance and price.The Cold War began, in a sense, and competition of economic systems.The times when "the price not stand," passed.It was found that the rate of artillery firing is considerably lower than at the start tactical missile approximately equal efficiency, expressed as the destructive force.In the USSR, it is not immediately understood: Khrushchev leadership had fallen into a certain euphoria after the appearance in the arsenal of the Soviet Army missile delivery systems.In 1967, at the Kharkov Tractor (of course) the plant was designed "Pink" - the first Soviet "flower" self-propelled howitzer.Technical characteristics significantly superior to the parameters of all artillery, produced military-industrial complex of the USSR before.It involves the use of rocket-assisted projectile (of a hybrid with a rocket artillery ammunition), in which case the firing range increased from 15.3 to 21.9 kilometers.The charges could be different: cumulative, high-explosive, electronic (creating noise), smoke and other, including special (chemical).Large distance to the end point of the trajectory allowed to use weapons of mass destruction.The light-armored body was placed forty ammunition shells.


Howitzer, designed in the mid - late sixties, entered service in 1970.It can shoot at a distance of 20-30 km (depending on version).The machine itself is pretty easy, weighs much less than the average of the tank that has been achieved reduction of mass armor.It is also possible direct fire, but the primary purpose remains the same - defeat the purpose of the remote.Chassis made of perednemotornoy scheme has proved its worth during the war years.The design takes into account the experience of the creation of the ACS 100 and the motive for the reminiscences was the presence of American guns M-109, capable of shooting low-powered tactical nuclear charge (TNT equivalent of 100 tonnes).The answer was "Acacia" - howitzer with no worse characteristics.

Czech "Dana»

Most often the army of the socialist countries were armed with Soviet military equipment samples, but there were exceptions.Obviously, remembering past glories (and before World War II, Czechoslovakia was one of the leading manufacturers of weapons in Europe and the world), engineers from Czechoslovakia in the mid-seventies, designed and manufactured the new cannon, with a range of outstanding for the time tactical and technical data.Self-propelled howitzer "Dana" is characterized by high rate of fire (one shot per minute), it has a relatively small settlement (6 people), but its main advantage was a great chassis "Tatra", with high maneuverability, agility and speed.Leadership of the country, even considering the purchase of the Czech miracle for the needs of the Soviet Army, but knowing that in our country are working to create their own, more sophisticated howitzer guns, the thought refused to limit the purchase of several copies for the study of "fraternal experience".Self-propelled howitzer "Dana" and today is in service with the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Libya and several other countries where this tool was delivered after the collapse of the Soviet Union.During the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, the Russian army captured the three "given" as trophies.

D-30: classic artillery

With all the abundance of self-propelled artillery systems, the cheapest option is the usual wheeled howitzer.152-mm gun Soviet production is known for its characteristic silhouette in the world.In firing position carriage, laying completely rests on three supports to the ground, so that the wheels do not touch the ground, which provides - on the one hand - a reliable emphasis, and with another - allows circular firing.The main characteristic of howitzer D-30 - shot distance to 5.3 km, which in most cases is sufficient.Transportation of weapons is not a problem: it weighs 3.2 tons, which makes it possible to transport it in nearly all the bridges, and the role of the tractor, you can use the usual "Ural".Simplicity, reliability and high efficiency - these are the characteristic features of Russian weapons.D-30 and D-30A willingly buy for defense needs of different countries, and some of them (China, Yugoslavia, Egypt, Iraq) considered it necessary to buy the documentation for their production.And another important function is performed by the howitzer.Photos, where in the fortress provide a traditional midday volley, certainly it is decorated with a weapon.

Shield and Sword

Howitzers Russia - an indispensable component of artillery-missile shield the country.Their offensive appointment talks about aggressive military doctrine, but because no army in the world does not exclude the possibility of attack or apply pre-emptive strikes, right?Besides, what kind of artillery little has changed so much and the universalization of features like a howitzer.Specifications of this tool you can use it for firing at flat trajectory that is used for the defense, including anti-tank.

A powder should always keep dry.