Already before the First World War, the fight against the enemy aircraft was one of the most important military and tactical issues.Along with fighter planes used for this purpose and ground facilities.Conventional weapons and machine guns poorly suited for shooting airplanes, they had a lack of elevation of the barrel.One could, of course, to fire rifles out of the ordinary, but the probability of falling sharply decreased due to the low rate of fire.In 1906, German engineers have proposed to mount on armored car emplacement, giving it the agility in conjunction with the firepower and the ability to fire at targets vysokoraspolozhennym.BA "Erhard" - the world's first self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon.Over the past decade, this type of weapon is developing rapidly.
classical scheme of defense systems in the understanding of military theorists of the interwar period is a single ring structure, especially important government environmental, industrial, economic and administrative areas.Each element of this air defense (separate anti-aircraft installation) are subject to the command of the fortified area and was responsible for its own sector of airspace.Something like this was a system of air defense of Moscow, Leningrad and other major Soviet cities in the initial period of the war, when the Nazi air raids took place almost daily.However, despite its efficacy, such a course of action was completely inapplicable in a dynamic defense and offense.Cover each army division of anti-aircraft battery is difficult, although it is theoretically possible, but movement of a large number of instruments - not an easy task.Besides stationary anti-aircraft artillery with their unprotected settlements themselves are a target for enemy attack aircraft, which, having defined their disposition, constantly striving to bomb them and to secure the operating room.In order to provide effective cover for the forces on the front line, air defenses had to have mobility and high firepower and a certain degree of security.Self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon - the car, which has these three qualities.
During the war
During the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army had almost no antiaircraft self-propelled guns.Only in 1945 were the first examples of this class of weapons (ZSU-37), but in the final battles of these instruments did not play a big role, actually force of Luftwaffe were crushed, and also Nazi Germany was experiencing a serious lack of fuel.Before that, the Soviet army used towed 2K, 25-mm and 37-mm 72-K (gun Loginova).To defeat the purpose of applied high-rise 85-mm gun 52-K.This anti-aircraft gun (and others), if necessary, beat and armored vehicles: a high muzzle velocity allowed to penetrate any defense.But the vulnerability of the calculation required a new approach.
Germans were samples of antiaircraft self-propelled guns, established on the basis of tank chassis ("East Wind» - Ostwind, and "Whirlwind» - Wirbelwind).A Wehrmacht was also a Swedish anti-aircraft gun "Nimrod", set on an easily-tank chassis.It was originally conceived as a means of armor-piercing, but against the Soviet "tridtsatchetverok" proved to be ineffective, but successfully applied the German defenses.
Wonderful Soviet film "The Dawns Here Are Quiet ..." reflected the heroism of female anti-aircraft gunner, caught in an unexpected situation (public during the war happened a lot), for all his undoubted artistic merits it contains one inaccuracy, howeverforgiven and not very important.Anti-aircraft machine gun mount LSD-4, which the intrepid heroine knock at the beginning of the picture German aircraft in 1945, only started to develop in the factory number 2 under the direction of designer I. Leszczynski.System weighed a little more than two tons, so it is easy to be towed.It had a four-wheel chassis, fully self-propelled it can not be named because of the absence of the engine, but the high mobility helped to successfully apply it in Korea (1950-1953) and in Vietnam.Both the military conflict have demonstrated high efficacy in the control sample with the helicopters, which were used in large quantities for the American troops landings and assault operations.Move LSD-4 could be using army jeep, "jeep", harnessed the horses and mules, and even just pushing.According to unconfirmed reports, this pattern of technology used and the opposing forces in the current conflict (Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan).
first decade after the victory passed under undisguised mutual hostility between the Western countries, united in a military alliance, NATO, and the Soviet Union.Tank might of the USSR and had no equal in quantity and in quality.In the event of conflict, the column of armored vehicles could (theoretically) be reached even to Portugal, but it was the threat of enemy aircraft.Implement protection against air attacks on Soviet troops moving anti-aircraft gun was adopted for service in 1955.Two caliber guns placed in a circular tower ZSU-57-2 was considerable - 57 mm.Electrohydraulic drive rotation, but for safety it is duplicated manual mechanical system.Sight automatic, for input data purpose.When rate of 240 rounds per minute installation had an effective range of 12 km lesions (8.8 km vertically).Chassis fully consistent with the main purpose of the machine, it was borrowed from the T-54, so keep up with the column she could not.
After a long search for a suitable and optimal solutions, take two decades, Soviet designers have created a real masterpiece.In 1964 began mass production of the newest ZSU-23-4, meets all the requirements of modern warfare with the enemy attack aircraft.By that time it became clear that for the ground forces the most dangerous low-flying planes and helicopters that do not fall into the range of altitudes at which conventional air defense systems are most effective.Anti-aircraft "Shilka" has a terrific rate of (56 bps), had its own radar and guidance three modes (manual, semi-automatic and automatic).If the caliber of 23 mm, it is easy to hit the high-speed aircraft (up to 450 m / s) at a distance of 2-2.5 km.During the armed conflicts of the sixties and seventies (Middle Eastern, South Asian, African) this ZSU has shown itself at its best, mainly due to the firing of qualities, but also because of the high mobility and protection of the crew from the damaging effects of fragments and small-caliberammunition.Self-propelled anti-aircraft installation "Shilka" was a milestone in the development of the domestic mobile systems operational regimental level.
With all the advantages of the regimental complex "Shilka" theater possible full-scale hostilities could not be provided sufficient cover using only a relatively small artillery systems and small-caliber range.To create a powerful "dome" over the division required a completely different - anti-aircraft missile installation."Castle," "Twister," "The Hurricane" and other MLRS, with high fire performance, combined with the battery, are a tempting target for enemy aircraft.The mobile system is moving over rough terrain, which has the ability to quickly deploy combat, sufficiently protected, all-weather - that's what the troops needed.Anti-aircraft guns "Wasp", began arriving in the military units in 1971, meets these needs.The radius of the hemisphere, within which equipment and personnel can feel relatively safe from enemy air attacks, is 10 km away.
development of this sample was conducted for a long time, more than a decade (the project "ellipsoid").The rocket was first assigned to Tushino machine-building plant, but for various reasons the task was to entrust the secret OKB-2 (Sec. Designer PD Grushin).The main weapon of memory became four 9M33 missiles.Installation can capture target on the march, it is equipped with high-performance noise-station guidance.It is in service with the Russian Army today.
In the early seventies the establishment of reliable air defense operational level in the Soviet Union attached great importance.In 1972, two enterprises of the defense complex (NIIP and NGOs "Fazotron") has been tasked to create a system that can shoot down a ballistic missile "Lance", having a speed of 830 m / s and any other object capable of maneuvering with congestion.Anti-aircraft guns, "Buk", designed according to this technical specification is part of the complex, which includes, in addition to her station and target detection (SOC) and the loading vehicle.The division, which has a single management system includes five PU.This anti-aircraft gun operates at a distance of 30 km.On the basis of solid-fuel missiles 9M38, which has become a unified, established sea-based air defense system.Currently, the complex is in service with some countries of the former USSR (including and Russia) and states previously have purchased them.
development of missile technology does not diminish the role of artillery, especially in such a demanding area of defense equipment, as a means of air defense.Normal shell in the presence of good guidance systems, it can cause damage no less than the jet.An example is the historical fact that during the Vietnam War, the American company experts "McDonnell" were forced to hastily develop cannon container for aircraft F-4 "Phantom", which they were originally equipped only URami, without bothering about the board artillery.Soviet designers ground-based air defense come to the question of combined arms more prudently.Created by them in 1982, anti-aircraft gun "Tunguska" hybrid has firepower.The main weapons are the missiles 9M311 in the amount of eight units.This is the most powerful to date ZSU, its hardware system provides a secure grip and defeat the purpose of a wide range of frequencies and velocities.Especially dangerous speed low-flying aircraft intercepted artillery complex, which included twin anti-aircraft gun (30 mm) with its own guidance system.Range defeat guns - to 8 km.Appearance war machine no less impressive than its tactical and technical data: Chassis, unified with the "Wasp" GM 352, surmounted menacingly bristling with missiles and the tower trunk.
After World War II in the United States began developing high-performance air defense.SLM "Duster", created on the basis of chassis "Bulldog" - the tank to the carburettor engine, produced in large quantities (of the firm "Cadillac" was released more than 3,700 pieces).The car was not equipped with radar, its tower did not have the upper protection, however it is widely used during the Vietnam War for defense against air raids DRV.
more advanced guidance system received the French mobile air defense installation AMX-13 DCA.It was completed on-board radar, working only after combat deployment.Date of completion of project works - in 1969, but made AMX up to 80, for the needs of the French army, and for export (mainly to Arab countries, adhering to the pro-Western political orientation).This anti-aircraft gun proved to be generally good, but in almost all respects inferior to the Soviet "Shilka".
Another American example of this class of weapons - SLM "Vulcan M-163", built on the basis of widespread M-113 armored personnel carriers.The units of the car began to arrive in the early 1960s, Vietnam has become so for her the first (but not last) test.Firepower M-163 is very high, six machine guns "Gatling" with rotating shafts issued rate of nearly 1,200 rounds per minute.Protection is also impressive - it reaches 38 mm armor.All this provided a sample export potential, it comes to Tunisia, South Korea, Ecuador, North Yemen, Israel and some other countries.
The SLM is different from the complex air defense
addition to artillery and air defense systems, hybrid, is now the most common air defense missile systems, as exemplified by the saying "Buck."As the name of the class of weapons, these systems work, as a rule, not as a stand-alone machines to support ground troops, and in the composition of divisions, including combat units for different purposes (charging, command post, mobile radar and guidance station).In the classic sense, any memory (anti-aircraft gun) should provide protection from enemy aircraft specific operational area by itself, without the need for concentration of additional aids, so the complexes "Patriot", "Boom", a series of C-200 - C-500 in this articleIt was not considered.These air defense system, form the basis of the air safety in many countries, including Russia, deserve a separate review.They usually combine the capability to intercept targets in a wide range of high-speed and high-altitude are more efficient, but - because of the high cost - are not available for many countries, forced to rely in its defense on the ordinary mobile units, cheap and reliable.