In the heart of Asia, is the largest state called Kazakhstan.The economy of this country is characterized by agro-industrial structure and a powerful sector of the mining industry.By its total potential, it is the largest in the Central Asian region.
modern market economy of Kazakhstan - what is it?And what are the prospects for the near future?Let's try to figure it out.
Kazakhstan: the economy of the country (an overview)
Kazakhstan - agro-industrial country.In terms of per capita GDP (11 000 dollars) it takes 54 th place in the global rankings.The growth of Kazakhstan's economy is mainly due to mining, that is, the country is characterized by raw material orientation of the industry.
official currency of Kazakhstan - tenge (November 1993).The name comes from the Turkic "dengue" - as in the Middle Ages were called small-sized Turkish silver coins.By the way, this name and migrated into the Russian language - in the form of well-known all over the word "money."
main sectors of Kazakh industry is mining, metallurgy (and black, and color), tractors, as well as production of construction materials.
Russia, China, USA, Germany - these are the main trade partners of the Republic of Kazakhstan.The economy of this country is focused on the production and export of minerals.In these countries from Kazakhstan come mainly coal, refined copper, ferroalloys, oil and gas.
Despite this, in industrial production employing not more than 16% of the total population.Another 24% work in agriculture and forestry, and the majority of residents of Kazakhstan (60 per cent) involved in the so-called "tertiary" sector (the service sector and the media).
Industry and Energy
The country is highly developed metallurgy, both black and color.The national economy of Kazakhstan is highly dependent on the stable operation of the metallurgical enterprises.In reserves of iron ore in the country is the first world ten.
Various rolled produced at the plant "Arcelor Mittal Temirtau" in Karaganda.Previously, the plant was the flagship of a full cycle of the Soviet steel industry.Kazakhstan is also the world's largest producer of refined copper.
very developed in the country and machine-building complex.Kazakhstan produces high quality press machines, machine tools, batteries, as well as X-ray equipment.The main centers of engineering - it is the city of Aktobe, Shymkent and Astana.
Energy industry of the country supplying 40 power plants (including thermal power plants and 37 hydroelectric 3).All thermal power plants run on coal mined itself.
no less important to the economy of Kazakhstan is and agriculture.
leader in this sector of the economy grain production - namely, the cultivation of spring wheat.About 15-20 million tons of grain annually produces Kazakhstan.Also, large areas of land (arable land) took the corn and oats.The country has a highly developed breeding sheep, horses and camels.
Foreign Trade of the Republic of Kazakhstan's economy is tied to exports of resources and products, such as oil, oil products, iron ore, non-ferrous metals and grain.At the same time, the country is actively import cars, various tools and equipment, food.The main article in the export structure of the state owned oil industry production (about 38%).
In foreign trade, about 60% of both exports and imports accounted for the CIS countries and the Baltic States.It should be noted that the country's main trading partner is Russia.Kazakhstan is also actively develops and maintains trade relations with China, Germany, Ukraine, Turkey, the Czech Republic, the USA, Belarus, South Korea and other countries.
Economic regions of the country
Republic of Kazakhstan conditionally divided into five economic regions, each of which has its own specialization.It's like:
This West Economic Region specializes in oil and gas, Eastern and Central - in engineering, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, North - mining of coal, iron ore, electricity and building materials.
In Southern economic region is developed agriculture, fisheries and forestry.It actively grow rice, wheat, cotton, vegetables, fruit and grapes;development of sheep breeding and horse breeding.In the deserts of southern Kazakhstan are also bred and camels.
Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan
All processes in the economy are regulated and coordinated by the Government.To be more precise, this feature falls on the shoulders of one of his officers.This is - the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan.However, to date, this body has a completely different title: "The Ministry of Economy and Budget Planning."The name, which existed before, was officially abolished in August 2014.
Ministry, which is headed Erbolat Dosayev, coordinates the development of all areas of economic policy.The main mission of this body - an effective system of control, which could implement the objectives set by the state.Ministry also controls the development of commercial processes and relations of the country with foreign partners.
Kazakhstan's economy: prospects for the near future
development of Kazakhstan's economy in the near future risk facing serious difficulties.The cause of the crisis, as it may seem, could be events that occur far from the national borders of the republic - namely the conflict in Ukraine.
Many experts predict that the war in the Donbass and the Crimea situation will affect the economy of Kazakhstan - a country that has close ties with Russia.The economic sanctions imposed by the West on the Russian Federation, one way or another affect and Kazakhstan.However, with some inertial delay.
Experts in the field of the national economy are predicting that the first effects of these processes on Kazakhstan feels itself already in mid-2015.So much will decrease revenue to the state budget, which will certainly affect the welfare of the people of Kazakhstan.To cope with the crisis the country can help the accession to the WTO.This, according to experts, will contribute to lower prices for certain groups of goods.
Instead of conclusion
most powerful - industrial potential - country in Central Asia is Kazakhstan.The economy of this state is mainly based on the extraction and primary processing of minerals.And this fact can hardly be positive for the long-term development of the country.
Economic, trade and financial policies of the government led by the Ministry of economy of Kazakhstan.One of the tasks of the public administration body, in particular, is a strategic planning and development of the national economy of the republic as a whole.