Most small and invisible to the naked eye, the inhabitants of our planet - are microscopic bacteria, fungi and viruses.They are very much the number in the billions.Their role in nature and human life is different, assessment varies from positive through neutral to negative.Consider what the representatives of the bacteria have learned to live in close contact with humans, and how important they are.
Bacteria - living organisms
These most ancient inhabitants of the planet are single-celled organisms of microscopic size.It is known that the approximate time of their appearance - 3.5 billion years ago.For a long time apart from them no other living creatures on Earth were not.Only then it began a rapid process of evolution, and life began to blossom in all its diversity.
Mankind has learned a lot about bacteria only in the XVII century, through the works of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.It was this naturalist first invented magnifying devices, through which you could see these tiny creatures.
Over time, it has accumulated considerable theoretical material, confirmed by practical research.People become available information about how to look microbes, which have the structure has been determined the value of bacteria in human life.
So, it became clear that the bacteria - a prokaryotic organisms, ie not containing a part of their cell nuclei issued.In addition, they characterized a number of the following features in the phenotype and the internal structure:
- body shape may be different: spherical (cocci), rod-shaped (bacilli), in the form of a bunch of grapes (staphylococci), vibrio, spirillum and others.
- There may be single, but often create entire colonies.
- Stains in most cases are not, but some forms can be beautiful purple or green.Most often stained colonies was due to release into the environment of special pigments.
- genetic material within the cell contains a DNA molecule, which is distributed in the center of the structure.
- movement in space at the expense of the flagella, gas vacuoles or mucous capsule covering the body.
- outside body is covered with a cell wall and capsule, under which are all the cell organelles.
- structural part of the cell are similar to those found in animal and plant structures.Feature is the carbohydrate or lipid droplets inclusions operating energy function.Instead
- present in the cell nucleus nucleoid consisting of a DNA strand.
actually live bacteria have quite an interesting structure.Lifestyle these microorganisms are also called burning curiosity of scientists around the world.Through their work mankind gained access to the new information that has no doubt of great importance for science as a whole and its individual sectors.The scope of this article do not allow to discuss all these points in more detail.Therefore, we will focus only on the general understanding of these organisms and focusing on their role and importance in our lives.
incredible unpretentiousness Due to environmental conditions, the bacteria were able to settle around the globe.For them they are not an obstacle nor cold, nor too high temperatures or acidic or basic, soil salinity.Bacteria photos which can be found in the article inhabit:
- thermal springs;
- snow and ice;
- anoxic habitats.
It is clear that the spread of these creatures everywhere.It is difficult to find at least one thing in any environment that does not have to meet the bacteria.Even pure spring water contains them in sufficient amounts.
life of bacteria is reduced to the fundamental processes: nutrition, reproduction, movement in search of food, the experience of adverse conditions.Like all unicellular existence other purposes they have not.
By way of power, that is, energy absorption, they are divided into:
The first group includes various bacteria.Photos can be seen below.In general, among them there are such groups.
- Photosynthetic - you accumulate energy from the sun through photosynthesis.
- Hemosintetiki - oxidized inorganic compound (sulfur, nitrogen, iron) and recycle them into the organics.
- Methane or methylotrophs - use the energy of oxidation of carbon-containing substances for life.
heterotrophic species consume ready-made organic compounds.To obtain these organisms use different methods.Thus, we can distinguish three groups of heterotrophic bacteria:
- saprophytes - decompose dead plants and animals;
- symbionts - enter into mutually beneficial co-existence with the host;
- parasites - malicious and damaging the health of the master form.
also vital activity of bacteria is another feature - sporulation.During extremely adverse conditions the cell is able to stop in all the processes of life, and seemed to fall asleep, covered with a dense shell.This state is called the dispute.Since the body can live for decades, being in anticipation of suitable environmental conditions.The spores are extremely resistant to freezing and heat treatment, even for long periods.
value for human
fact that the organism in question - our constant companions throughout life, was found immediately.An important role in the establishment of this fact played Mechnikov.That he held a series of multiple studies that show great importance of bacteria in human life.
turns out, our skin, mucous membranes of the nose and mouth, the inside of the gastrointestinal tract, pelvic organs - all these structures are densely populated by various forms of microorganisms.They help us fight infections, to digest food, to purify itself from within.Themselves instead of getting good living conditions and nutrition.That is live bacteria inside the person living with him in close symbiosis.
If disturbed the natural intestinal flora, skin, stomach and other organs, the people develop multiple diseases, often occurring in a very severe form.That is why the scientists, doctors and microbiologists were created probiotics.It strains of live bacteria of some kind which can be used to replenish and restore the natural microflora.
This value is not limited to prokaryotes.Man uses them in agriculture, food industry, space industry, science and technology, biosynthesis and molecular biology and many other fields.
Live bacteria for the gut: the name
If we talk about specific types of these micro-organisms that inhabit the human inside, the first thing should be to designate the most "rich" of the place - the intestines.It is this body composed of several divisions and reach a length (an adult) to 12 m, is the perfect home for a variety of representatives of prokaryotes.
There are two main kinds, consisting of several families and a variety of species and strains that do not just inhabit the said body and are essential for every human being.This is a live bacteria to the intestine, the genus name which is pronounced in Russian as the Lactobacillus and bifidobaktrium.
Each of these plays an important role in the metabolic processes of the intestine.Therefore, we consider them in detail.
Bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus: characteristics and importance
Live bacteria for the intestine, the name of the genus Lactobacillus which sounds like - are natural inhabitants of the intestinal microflora under normal condition.They have a positive impact on the overall condition of the body as:
- activate the work of many important enzymes and proteins involved in immune processes;
- act as antagonists to pathogenic microbes, relieving the body from intoxication;
- accelerate healing (regeneration) processes in the mucous membranes and the like.
These bacteria are used in the manufacture of dairy products.That is their strains are part of the starter cultures of various types of construction for:
- live yogurt;
- cocktails and other products.
species of this genus are many prokaryotes.Therefore, below is a table.The taxon Bacteria that live in the intestines, will be included in the list of representatives, together with its name.
genus of bacteria
family and kind of
has the ability to produce lactic acid in large quantities, thereby suppressingand inhibiting pathogenic microbes.Restores microflora, quickly and naturally live in the gut.It is used in the composition of medicines, foods acidophilus.
basic properties of the bacteria will be considered separately.
effect on the body: lowers blood pressure, reduces the risk of gastritis and ulcers, has an anti-tumor effect, affects the metabolism and improves the quality and regularity of the chair.
lactococci: diatsetilaktis, kremoris
natural representatives of the microflora are not, however, used in the manufacture of milk products, cheeses.Affects the production of certain enzymes.
promotes the normalization of the gastrointestinal tract and removes germs.
During vital activity generates protein molecules that fight infections and pathogenic microbes.
became aware of them only in the XX century.However, research scientists from various countries have shown that these microorganisms are part of the gastrointestinal tract of mammals.In humans a significant part of the microflora is also composed of strains of this species.
Lactobacillus Reuter - a live bacteria to the intestine, which gave the name of the German microbiologist, was first isolated and identified by their tribal affiliation lactobacilli.Their significance is the same as that of all the above inhabitants of the intestine.
Bulgarian yoghurt as a source of "Lactobacillus bulgaricus»
This body was discovered the famous immunologist Mechnikov.It was he who first drew attention to the fact how useful products created on the basis of life of this bacterium.
What is the benefit?
- Improving bowel.
- produce useful minerals and amino acids.
- mild laxative effects.
- Purification of pathogenic bacilli.
Bifidobacteria: characteristics and importance
to this genus are live bacteria, which names the following:
- Subtitle other.
There are about 35 species of organisms.They make up the vast majority of intestinal bacteria (about 80-90% of the total inhabitants).The value of the following:
- maintenance of homeostasis.
- Strengthening and formation of immunity.
- Development of vitamins and enzymes.
- restoration of normal microflora.
- actively involved in metabolism.
includes two subspecies, and several strains of microorganisms rod-shaped, slightly curved.Take an active part in the normalization of the bowel, so widely used in the production of various probiotics and drugs as well as food.
«Bifidobaktrium bifidum" - antagonist
main action is based on antagonistic properties.These organisms are able to inhibit pathogens and to restore the body to work normally.Also contribute to the strengthening of immunity, since produce vitamins, enzymes and protein molecules are capable of phagocytosis of foreign bodies.
role of bacteria in nature
It is certainly important and multifaceted.However, we can identify the main processes in nature, which does not dispense with the organism in question:
- Circulation of substances.Including elements (nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, iron).
- soil formation.
- decomposition of organic residues.
Thus, the bacteria in nature play a very significant role, being in close cooperation with all other living beings.