development of new technological means of control and regulation of air pollution in industrial premises due to the need to improve the quality requirements of the working conditions.In favorable for the well-being and overall health among people more effectively do their jobs, which is directly reflected in the volume of production.At the moment, the key to ensuring clean air devices are based on the use of air conditioning and industrial ventilation.The central place in the context of the problems of creating optimal conditions for indoor climate takes - a set of indicators of climate protection within the production facility.That is, there are two aspects that are important in terms of maintaining an optimal indoor air quality - this microclimate and its parameters.
What is the working environment?
Modern regulations provided for the organization of production processes, a lot of attention is paid to the safety of workers.Against the background of the complexity of manufacturing technology, recycling and disposal at the enterprises there and the need for appropriate protection of people.In terms of defining the concept of the protection of personnel is most important is climate - a set of air parameters, which are determined on the basis of admissible and optimal values of temperature, humidity, thermal radiation and other characteristics.Later they become the starting point for developing strategies for creating comfortable conditions for fruitful work of people in the company.
Factors affecting the value of the parameters
Formation of microclimate is under the influence of several factors, and determining its parameters.During the day, their performance may vary, and in some portions and does vary in one and the same time.The list of the main factors determining the microclimate parameters include the following:
- climate zone, and the time of year;
- size shops, premises, departments;
- conditions and characteristics of the air;
- logistics of the production process;
- number of employees.
parameters of the microclimate
In the analysis of the formation conditions of the microclimate in the working process parameters can be viewed either individually or in the aggregate.The indicators characterizing the work environment include the speed of movement, the values of humidity and air temperature.In addition, also allows for the possibility termoobluchenie.Temperature conditions are generally determined by the characteristics of surfaces.In particular, it takes into account the state structures and equipment (machines, devices, screens).Temperature microclimate parameters are taken into account only if funds are available, providing heat.The same applies to radiation heat.Indices based on the coefficients of moisture vapor contained in air.This humidity can be calculated as the maximum, relative and absolute.
Effect of climate on the body
parameters directly affect the working environment on the human condition.For example, lowering the temperature and increasing the speed of airflow enhances convective heat transfer and heat transfer.This occurs during the evaporation of sweat, and may contribute to hypothermia.In contrast, the working environment can cause the reverse processes, if the temperature rises.Humidity also plays a significant role in the impact of the working environment on the human body.With this measure of tolerance associated body temperature and thermal sensation.If the relative humidity is increased, the evaporation of sweat is slow and there is a risk of overheating of the body.
adverse effects on the thermal sensation has increasingly humidity in an environment where the temperature exceeds 30 ° C.The entire amount of heat generated by the evaporation of sweat on the background, will go into the environment, which forms the working climate in the room.High levels of humidity exclude the possibility of evaporation of sweat - it trickling down my skin.As a result, the current process is started pouring sweat that exhausting effect on a person and prevents optimal heat transfer.
rules governing the characteristics of the microclimate, enshrined in sanitary instruments for industrial facilities.The rules are given hygienic requirements for microclimate of providing optimal and allowable temperature, speed and humidity of the air environment.Besides, there are requirements to the thermal radiation for production facilities considering labor loads and season.
observance of established standards is not always possible in the plants where hygiene standards are contrary to the technological requirements.In such cases, compliance with the rules of oversight services can not achieve economic viability in the enterprise.However, this does not mean that managers do not take appropriate measures to create favorable working conditions.As an alternative to the practice of imposing measures to protect working means of special security.
favorable microclimate conditions at the production facilities in the majority of cases are calculated from the parameters of the functional condition of the worker.Optimal requirements are aimed at ensuring the microclimate of general and local thermal comfort sensation during eight-hour shift.It is important to maintain a minimum pressure in the process of thermoregulation.
One of the main criteria in the calculation of the optimal parameters of the microclimate is the absence of the factors causing variations in health status.In addition, the working environment should create conditions for increasing efficiency of people.Requirements applicable to operator workplaces where personnel function may be associated not only with the technical tasks.This plots in which also provides neuro-emotional stress, such as remotes and control stations, complexes with computer facilities and classrooms, where the operator controls the process.
Valid microclimate conditions
conditions for the formation of a valid option uses less stringent requirements.Since the working environment - a set of indicators on a variety of factors in the working environment, extreme performance are often the only ones possible.In such cases, and apply the standards with the permissible values.When complying with them eliminates the risk of serious deviations in the health of employees, but the impact on specific and general feeling of discomfort, the appearance of poor health and reducing health is still possible.For example, the allowable values of air temperature depending on the nature of the working process can be from 3 to 5 ° C, which sometimes causes discomfort if you do not have special personal protective equipment.
Measurement of microclimate
To determine the performance of the microclimate conditions, you must use the appropriate measuring instruments.The traditional device for temperature control is a thermometer, but can also be used thermography, by which fixed performance in a certain period of time.Over a wide range of devices used to determine the moisture content, which is also subject to the requirements of indoor climate in the form of specific values.It can be fixed and aspiration psychrometers, hygrometers and barometers - aneroids used in measuring atmospheric pressure.
Prevention adverse effects
As already noted, adhere to the requirements for the microclimate is not always possible, and the deviation from the permissible values requires preventive measures aimed at eliminating harmful effects.They are implemented by various means, including through the use of air conditioning systems, use of personal protective equipment from the effects of low and high temperatures, and so on.. Because climate - a state of the environment, which may be local in the facility, often practiced differentiation of space enterprisesdepending on the characteristics of air.This allows you to equip special lounges where workers normalize the status of your body.