Flying in space over the past after the launch of the first satellite of the decade became so frequent that the average man in the street behind them are not watching very carefully.On Earth orbit constantly rotate hundreds of devices for different purposes.The satellites provide communications, surveillance, navigation, they are used for research, and become as familiar trappings of modern life, such as cell phones, laser readers, or PCs, which previous generations could only dream boldly.
But artificial space objects required to display the desired orbit, and it was in the same business as the most common transportation services rendered autoenterprises, airlines, shipping companies go railways.Russia - the world leader in the delivery of satellites in near-Earth space.Space rocket "Angara", apparently, will soon become the main tool for this job.
about centrifugal force
After the collapse of the USSR, Russia is legally deprived of its main cosmodrome, located in the area and became the Kazakh Baikonur.Using them, of course, possible, but for it must now pay, and a lot.Reasons for launching pads of the first Soviet spacecraft were built in the southern part of the country easy.The closer to the equator of the spaceport, the greater the centrifugal force caused by rotation of the planet on its axis.Accordingly, the gravity rocket is easier to overcome, it requires less fuel (other examples: Cape Canaveral, Guinea).Russia's dependence on foreign countries, even very friendly, is undesirable.Cosmodrome "Plesetsk" and "East" - that is the new launch pads from which is expected in the future to carry out the launch."Angara" carrier rocket of new generation should be powerful enough to place in orbit commercial goods at latitudes north of Baikonur.
The specialists Khrunichev.Khrunichev and work in cooperation with them KB ("Energy", Bureau named VP Makeyev, "Energomash" and others.) Was given the task to create a complex, their capabilities spanning the spectrum previously used carriers.These include manufactured in Ukraine "Proton", "Cyclone" and "Zenit-2".All these samples of space technology was to replace the rocket "Angara".Technical characteristics of the different types of media differ in thickness and weight of the payload to orbit.To achieve universality, needed a new conceptual approach.
First Deputy General Director of SPC them.Khrunichev AA Medvedev during the period of the project doctorate.Later, he led the design team.
Soviet media from the beginning built on the modular principle.In the "Vostok" engines were placed in four bags surrounding the body of the rocket.Before designers State Research and Production Space Center Khrunichev task was not only to create a very strong, capable to put into orbit a heavy load.They had to design a family of vehicles of different capacities for the delivery of near-Earth space objects with different masses.So there was a series of "Angara".
Booster includes in its design a universal module in the variants "Angara 1.1" and "Angara 1.2".Three or five mind creates a high load carrying capacity for the subsequent class "Angara-A3" and "Angara-A5".This ideology gives the system flexibility and increase the commercial potential of the Russian space agency, have the freedom to be flexible approach and avoid unnecessary costs.
There is another strategically important difference and advantage, which is characterized by "Angara" - booster completely built in Russia and completed solely by domestic units and units.Recent events illustrate the economic profitability aerospace technological sovereignty of the Russian Federation.
main index - weight that can be put into orbit a rocket "Angara".Technical characteristics depend on the number included in his design of the universal modules.In the most powerful variant of the carrier (series 7, according to the number of UM) with the full weight of more than 1,100 tons of payload up to 35 tons.This is about as much as he could to raise the "Proton-M", starting from Baikonur.The middle class is a version of the A-3, it can carry up to 14.6 tonnes, while he weighs 481 ton.Finally, the easiest booster - "Angara", the characteristics of which correspond to the not very bulky and heavy objects, which often need to be displayed in the space (3.8 tons).
Besides complete flexibility, there is another important factor that increases the competitiveness of the Russian commercial space exploration.The modular design makes it easier and cheaper delivery of media to the launch site.Rockets can bring even the rail unassembled.
heptyl use as a fuel for heavy vehicles in conjunction with the highly toxic oxidants creates the risk of environmental contamination of the area in the event of an accident or other emergency situations.The basis of each of the universal rocket module, which consists of a carrier "Angara" is the RD-191 engine that runs on kerosene RG-1.The oxidant is liquefied oxygen, which significantly increases the security of the system and minimize the adverse effects on the environment.In addition, each module creates a universal craving 212.6 ton.
conceptual design was approved by N. Koptev, head of Rosaviakosmos, and approved by the Ministry of Defense, in whose jurisdiction includes activities KB.Work went on for ten years, resulting prototype was tested.In 2008 it held a unified missile fire testing module Khimmash (PCF "SIC RCP").Then, in 2009, passed the so-called "cold test" test bench and hydraulic systems, fuel assemblies with fuel components.Finally, in 2010 we passed a comprehensive review of all nodes URM "Angara".The launcher was declared operational.Weathered state test all units and systems.Now queues were flight tests.
first attempt to start
Whatever may be the exact calculations, and no matter how successfully passed ground and bench tests, the main evidence of any performance space technology is successfully launched.It was planned that 27 June 2014 from the Plesetsk cosmodrome launched "Angara".Booster was without reaching orbit raise the second stage together with the model that simulates the payload of a ballistic trajectory to overcome the 5.7 thousand. Km and fall in a given region of Kamchatka (the Kura test site).This is the day did not happen.About a minute and a half before the start of the automated monitoring system provides information about the failure of the fuel system, expressed in the drop in pressure in the damper oxidant.Prelaunch countdown time has been stopped.Perhaps the President of Russia and upset because of this failure, but, apparently, was glad that the intelligent system prevented a much larger disaster.
Fuel leaked, the rocket took off from the launch pad, and subjected to a thorough verification of all systems in the assembly and test complex.It took longer than expected, so the start was moved again.Finally, he held, it happened July 9.The flight was scheduled in the normal mode.With 43 seconds of the 4th minute after the start of detached and fell in the first stage of the Pechora Sea.The second stage is to start the engine even after 2 seconds, he worked 8 min.11 sec.Reset fairing occurred 10 seconds after the separation of the first stage.In general, everything was going well for a given sequence diagram.The entire flight to Kamchatka took 21 minutes.
Currently launches were two, and both were successful.During the second to the geostationary orbit was launched the two-ton layout, which is then subject to flooding in the ocean.In both cases, a modification was used the easiest, the need to deliver 35 tons of near-Earth space is not, although the characteristics of the rocket "Angara" A-7 permit.
It is possible that after overcoming the global economic crisis, international cooperation in space will reach a new stage of development, the ISS will be new or have an idea of interplanetary flight.In the latter case, the most powerful media become the transport, which will take into orbit a huge spaceship in parts for assembly.
In the meantime, work is underway on certification "Angara" for manned launches.