Natural gas is formed by mixing various gases in the earth's crust.In most cases, the depth ranges from several hundred meters to a couple of kilometers.It should be noted that gas can be formed at high temperatures and pressures.However, access to the site of the oxygen is absent.Today, natural gas production is realized in several ways, each of them will be discussed in this article.But let's take first things first.
be understood that natural gas is approximately 98% consists of methane.In addition, its composition may include ethane, propane, butane, and others. There is also the term "unconventional gas".He refers to natural gas, which is mainly produced from argillaceous rocks.It lies deep underground in coal seams, sandstone and other geozones under extremely high pressure.Today, the share of unconventional gas slightly less than half, and by 2030 it is planned to increase this figure to 56%.Currently, almost all of the country's gas production have rigs.But most of them, about 40% belongs to US.After all, that is what the government sells a huge amount of gas each year.Let's talk in more detail on this topic and deal with our questions.
Gas production in the world
for many hundreds of years, people have sought ways to improve mining operations, which in principle is quite normal.Human needs are growing every day, and there is a need for new production technologies.To date, such minerals as natural gas, is produced throughout the world from oil and gas fields, and it can be found dissolved in the oil or water.If we talk specifically about Russia, in our country it is extracted from the bowels of the Earth.It is noteworthy that the gas in its pure form has no color or smell.To quickly detect gas leaks, it added odorants which have a sharp odor.Such an approach can reduce the mortality rate among the population as a result of a gas leak.Of course, the production of gas in the world implies the use of safety equipment, as any open flame can lead to a large number of victims at the site of the well.
gas hydrate deposits
Not so long ago, it was determined that the gas could be buried in the solid state.If before scientists knew only of the liquid and gaseous state, it is currently known about the solid deposits, which are also of great importance for the industry.With each passing day, more and more talk about that at the bottom of the ocean there are large concentrations of greenhouse gases, which are there in the form of hydrates.Hydrates are still not widely used, however, are already being used for desalination, in addition, it is planned to use such deposits for gas storage.In fact, gas producing areas may expand somewhat as hydrates where there may be other mineral deposits.Now let's go ahead and look at something more interesting.
deposits of natural gas
There are data that suggest that the sedimentary shell of the Earth's crust is simply huge deposits of natural gas.There biogenic theory, which says that the gas is actually oil is formed by the decomposition of living organisms, long under the influence of high temperatures and pressures.In addition, temperature control is usually slightly higher, in the same way as the pressure than in the oil fields.This is due to the fact that gas is below the oil.To date, the largest deposits of Russia has.By and large, stocks of natural resources may be sufficient for many years.Gas production in Russia been established in almost all places.According to Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation, the total volumes are estimated at 48.8 trln.m3.
natural gas reserves of the countries
At the moment we can say that according to official data of 101 countries on its territory has reserves of this mineral.At last comes Benin - 0 trln.m3 0011, and Russia in the first place - 47,800 trln.m3.But this figure given the CIA, so in reality the data may vary slightly.Another country that has inexhaustible reserves - Iran.In addition, the Gulf countries such as the US and Canada, can also boast rich deposits of natural gas.If the transfer to Europe, then in the first places are Norway and the Netherlands.It is also noteworthy that the country, once a part of the USSR, such as Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, too, have a lot of natural gas.As noted slightly higher in the second half of the 20th century it was discovered gas hydrates.Today we know that their deposits are huge.And stocks have both at great depths and under the ocean floor.
methods of gas
Currently, the deposits are located at a depth of 1-3 kilometers.One of the deepest wells located near the town of Novy Urengoy, it goes underground for 6 kilometers.In the interior of it is located in the pores under high pressure.Gradually, it goes into the pores of lower pressure and so on until not fall directly into the hole.
main way of production - it is drilling.Usually the field is located on the territory of several wells.And they are trying to drill evenly to the reservoir pressure is approximately the same spread over several wells.If the well is only one, then it is likely it premature flooding.Today, virtually no other methods of gas production.For the most part due to the fact that it is inappropriate to invent something new, especially if the technology is more complicated.It is unlikely that in the near future, something to replace the well.
Preparing gas for transportation
After the natural resources on the well received from the earth, it must be returned to the user.This may be a chemical plant, power plants and other gas network.His preparation for transport due to the fact that in addition to the necessary components in there and other impurities that impede its further use and moving on highways.It is necessary to remove water vapor, which can build up in the arteries and impede the movement.You also need to remove and hydrogen sulfide, which is a serious threat to the gas equipment (corrosive).For preparation of various schemes can be used.The most suitable is the one in which the treatment plant is located in the immediate vicinity of the deposit.Then by drying and cleaning.In the case of the high content of hydrogen sulfide or helium, fossil sent to the gas processing plant.In principle, the gas production in Russia is usually implemented through the plants, as the quality of the starting material is not always up to par.
Currently, the main mode of transport is the pipeline.The tube diameter can be up to 1.4 meters, while the system pressure of 75 atmospheres.However, during the advancement line pressure is lost, and the product is heated.For the simple reason that at certain intervals construct compressor stations.There increase the gas pressure to 55-120 atm, and cooled.Despite the fact that pave the gas line is very expensive, today - this is the most expedient method of the natural resources in the medium and short distances.In some instances, the gas carriers, they are also often referred to as tankers.Gas is in special containers in a liquefied state.The temperature during transportation should be in the range of 150-160 degrees Celsius.This method has significant advantages such as security of the liquefied gas.
This article briefly considered the technology of gas production.In principle, the downhole method is the most popular.Other methods, if implemented, it is not found application for various reasons.As for the scope of the gas in the first place - is fuel.As the fuel is used for home heating and water heating, cooking, etc.In view of the high price of electricity - it is one of the cheapest ways of heating.Use gas and as fuel for motor vehicles, power plants and boilers.Chemical plants are using it for making plastics and other organic substances.Well that's all for this topic.Remember that improper handling of the gas can cause death.