Metals - it will never lose its relevance materials.They are widely used in the home and in industry.Of course, today came up with a lot of different alternatives on which to obtain materials that are not inferior in quality metals.However, they can not replace.It is difficult to imagine fences and gates, grates, manhole covers, tools and more of something else.
Although plastic, glass, silicone, polyethylene and polypropylene have become part of modern life, it is difficult to replace the fundamental structures of the numerous parts of cars and other vehicles on any alternative metals.Its just not there.
metals in the periodic
in the periodic table of chemical elements metals occupy the leading position.Of the currently known 117 positions to metals is more than 90. All of these elements have a number of unique features that allow you to refer them to the group of metals:
- ability to conduct an electric current.
- has a thermal conductivity.
- forging, plastic, amenable to rolling into sheets and wires (not all).
- Have silvery sheen (except copper and gold).
addition to the general properties of each such element has a number of specific, which makes it so popular.
All metals like simple substances can also be divided into three classes:
To include all non-ferrous metals, except precious metals and iron.That is, copper, mercury, palladium, chromium, nickel, zinc, magnesium, calcium, aluminum, lead, tin, and so on.
to precious metals include the following:
Ferrous metals - which they are treated?
in this class include:
- iron and all its alloys;
- actinides and uranium (thorium, plutonium, neptunium, and others);
- alkali metals.
That is, from the variety of these substances on the share of ferrous metals account for a smaller part.And basically not the most common (other than iron) are found in the earth's crust and interior.
But despite the fact that the ferrous metals are presented in a number of the few items, they are very common and voluminous in production and processing.Mass products, parts, items made precisely of iron and its alloys.
Metallurgy ferrous metals is extensive enough and demand worldwide.Mining and processing of iron - one advanced technical and economic problems of many countries, including Russia.
deposits of ferrous metals on the planet
Iron-scale mining is on the first place among all the metals.Its content by weight in nature, including in the earth's crust is estimated billions.At the same time, according to experts, a person today has discovered only a hundred billion tons.
If we talk about the world's deposits of ferrous metals, primarily iron, it should be noted that they are on all continents, in all parts of the world, except for the points of the Far North.The distribution by countries like the following (in descending order):
- Russia (about forty percent of the world's reserves);
fields in Russia
The Russian ferrous metals contained in virtually all large-scale federal districts.
- Central Federal District (Kursk Magnetic Anomaly) - more than 59%.
- Urals Federal District - 14%.
- Siberian District - 13%.
- Far - 8%.
- Northwestern Federal District - 4%.
- Volga - 0.5%.
In each of these districts is an enterprise which carried ferrous metallurgy.Russia has a clear leading position in the world on this indicator, and judging from the reserves, so it will continue for a very long time.
ferrous metal production involves several complicated step process.Firstly, ferrous metals are not found in the native form, and the relevant part of the ore (manganese, iron and so on).So before you get the metal to be extracted from the earth rock - ore.
This process is carried out by the mining industry.Thus ores containing iron, can be saturated and the rich or lean on the metal.Therefore, after removing the layer of ore piece of it is taken for chemical analysis.If the quantitative content of the metal is more than 57-60%, the work continues.If below, be terminated or moved to another area to search for a rich ore.Otherwise, the process is simply economically unprofitable.
next stage, which involves the production of black metal - is the processing of the ore extracted at a special plant.This process is known metallurgy.It can be of several types:
- Hydrometallurgy - based technology in the extraction and processing of ore is the use of water.In the process of leaching metals from the ore into solution, and then extracted by eletroliza in pure form.Energy and material, this method is more expensive, so it is used only for special metals.
- Pyrometallurgy - based technique in the use of fire.The process of thermal treatment of the ore in a blast furnace using a coked coal.The most common way of processing ore and extract metals.It is used in the steel industry.
- biometallurgy .Based on the action of living organisms, it is just beginning to be introduced into the practice, developed biotechnology.The bottom line is the ability of some microorganisms to extract during the life of metals from the ore.
to processing plants mined ores containing ferrous metals, exposed to careful processing.All these processes are reflected in the table below.
|1. Ore|| |
Branch of the ore containing metal from the waste rock.It may be one of three ways:
|Get clean, rich black metal substrate, which is sent for further processing.|
|2. Agglomeration||process of sintering ore.Conducted to obtain pure material without trace gases and dust and so on.|| |
obtained three types of ore processed:
|3. Blast||coking process ore in a blast furnace for use as fuel and a reducing iron from its oxides of carbon.||obtained pure iron, if necessary, have fused with carbon to form steel.|
Here thus is received iron and its alloys.The maximum material costs spent on the preparation and use of coke (coal).That it is a reducing agent for iron, fuel, a heat source, a carbon supplier.Therefore, in the described process uses a fairly large amount thereof, and hence high costs money.
to ferrous metals, primarily relates iron and alloys.It is understood that this is a very unstable material corrosion.Therefore, storage of black metal requires compliance with certain rules, especially if it is not about structures and products, and the so-called ferrous scrap (waste, broken ware, sheets, rods, fittings, etc.):
- room, which housesthe material must be completely covered by the access of moisture (rain, snow).The less the moisture, the longer shelf life.
- The area should be large warehouse, can not be stored sheet structure of ferrous metals right next to each other, because it will provoke early corrosion.
- All the available material should be sorted by brand and size.
Following these simple rules can be as long as possible to restrain the processes of destruction of the structure of metals.
ferrous metal alloys
To those accepted to iron alloys, which are divided into several types:
- Steel .Ferrous metal alloyed with carbon, gives the following result.
- Iron .Low iron, which is produced in a blast furnace during processing of ore, is totally unsuitable as a material for the production of appliances and household goods.He is too fragile.It must be subjected to further processing in the form of saturation of iron and carbon, to get excellent durable material.Also other elements added to improve the corrosion resistance and improved performance.
- Ferroalloys (silicocalcium, ferrochrome, ferrosilicon, silicomanganese).The main purpose of these alloys - improving the technical characteristics of the final material.
Foremost among all the alloys of ferrous metals is given steel.Today learned to achieve very significant results in the production of this material with preset important properties.This type of alloy - the most important for the industry that gave ferrous metals.What began to emerge?
- Mild - used for the production of various tools.Stainless
- (of which make pipe, refractory parts, cutting tools, machinery, welded, etc.).
- chrome vanadium.
Titles obvious that these components are added to the mixture of iron and carbon in a specific ratio.This affects a substantial change in the properties of the obtained materials.
Unfortunately, as we would have liked, things can not last forever.Over time, everything comes into disrepair - broken beats, getting old and out of fashion.So it is with designs made of ferrous metals.Steel, iron and other products, parts simply no longer needed.
Then they sit on a special enterprise engaged in the processing of worn raw.Now it's black secondary metals.That is called the failed and unnecessary in the home metal products made of ferrous metals.
Those enterprises that collect scrap must follow certain rules for its storage, export and sale.Our country's law on this issue is set to GOST.Ferrous metals, as well as color, are strictly controlled by law.
Secondary metals can be recycled and re-start production.It is for sale for such purposes, and buying up ferrous scrap metals intermediaries entrepreneurs.
today to ferrous metals are treated with due respect, they occupy a leading position in the market the respective products.
use in mechanical engineering
Steel and cast iron items, parts, various devices are the most widely used in engineering.They demand not only in the automobile, but also on the chemical, aviation industry, as well as in shipbuilding.All this thanks to the particular strength of these materials, their heat resistance and corrosion resistance.Ferrous metals are the base material for the production of many types of products.Among the most common following:
- side covers gear;
- cylinder cars and other vehicles;
- chain links on tractors;
- brake drums;
- shrouds and so on.
The list is endless because of ferrous metals and their alloys are indeed many.
Applications in other industries
There are several key areas in which ferrous metals are used:
- Chemical Industry.
- Furniture, special purpose.
- Release utensils.
- production of structural parts.
This is certainly not an exhaustive list, but only the common areas, which account for the vast majority of the products of ferrous metallurgy.