Butyrskaya prison (currently number 2 Detention FPS) was founded in 1771 on the orders of Catherine II.Provincial prison castle was designed by architect Kazakov.According to the original idea, the construction had to be elongated hexagonal ensemble.In the corners it was planned to construct a 4 round crenellated towers connected by brick high walls.What's that, but the project was brought to life.In Butyrskaya castle has 4 towers: Hour, Pugachev, Police and North.At the center of the body was located the church.And today the church in Butyrskaya prison inmates can visit freely.
At the end of 1774 the tsarist troops suppressed a rebellion of peasants were led by Pugachev.Runaway militiamen taken to Butyrskaya heavily guarded prisoner in chains and shackles.Himself instigator, Emelka, recovering in Moscow in a cage, and then also put in chains.In honor of the famous prisoner was even named one of the towers (South) in 1775, before his execution, he was chained to a wall in the basement of the building.Now she Pugachev.
instruments of torture At the time Butyrskaya prison are extremely violent content.In tsarist prison, there was a set of tools for burdening concluded: pads, slingshots, handcuffs, chairs, straps ... Prisoners could chained even for a small offense.Slingshot - a special metal collar, which did not allow the prisoner to lie.Chains used in a prison of three types, they were worn on the arms, legs and neck.Sometimes criminals additionally chained to the wall.Chairs have been used to prevent escape.They were made of oak chump weighing up to 25 kg and okovyvalis steel hoops.On the neck of the prisoner was fixed collar.The prisoner had to walk so even in the bath and toilet.
Expanding prisons and regime change
In 1878, the royal prison was rebuilt and expanded.As a result, the room could accommodate up to 2,500 offenders.In 1879 he was elevated to main cellblock.The main entrance is the gateway near the Pugachev Tower.
In 1889, rules were introduced on nutrition prisoners.After the revolution of the early 20th century in "Butyrka" created a special department convict a brutal regime, where the death penalty.
Famous person "Butyrka"
Within the walls of this prison in Moscow in the 19th - early 20th centuries.visited by many famous personalities: Bauman, Schmidt, Voroshilov, Dzerzhinsky, Makhno, and many participants in the uprising in 1905.Since 1906 Butyrskaya prison was called Provisional Central.They began to introduce an extremely harsh regime as punishment even introduced flogging."Fruits" of the new regime did not take long: the epidemic, various diseases, a wave of suicides.In 1910-1911 gg.It died the day before the 400 prisoners (mainly due to the consumption).When the chief Kudriakov (in 1908), the former royal prisoner turned into hell: flogging became commonplace, and very naughty sent to the penal chamber.
After the revolution, the 17-year chain, shackles and other instruments were canceled.Also allowed to come to the windows to see relatives and to receive transmissions.Butyrskaya Church liquidated, and its building made a smithy and hardware shop.Organized library and allowed to organize concerts.In 1920 there was made by F. Chaliapin.
since 1983 in a separate building were transferred women prisoners.In 1996, all the criminals who are in the other prison, have been sent it here.It should also be noted that numerous improvements and restructuring made independently, without receiving any documentation.Therefore, many buildings do not meet current building codes.
Destiny "Butyrka" after 2000
In 2001, throughout the "Butyrka" undergoing renovations.Regime building have been completely renovated.Restored and operates to this day Virgin Mary Church.Since 2003, in the detention center number 2 operates Department of Psychiatry and Addiction advanced training and retraining of medical personnel.
Many people wonder: where is the Butyrskaya prison?Address jail number 2 FPS: Ul.Novoslobodskaya, 45 (it is 4 km from the city center).Now the agency is guarded by the state as a unique monument of architecture.
"Butyrka" will become a museum?
Soon "Butyrka" can turn the prison into a museum.The requirement to close the detention center of the State Duma deputies have considered several times, but has not achieved any results.
Residents of nearby houses are constantly asked to consider closing the prison.Firstly, the view from the windows of their depressing - barred windows.Secondly, in the yard is a pungent smell of bureaucracy.And thirdly, there is constant along the entrances of all the Reference Bureau jail.In addition, there is one more important point.In the area where the Butyrskaya prison, to sell the apartment at the market price is not possible, which is understandable.
After complaints Muscovites many deputies offered to resettle prisoners in jail on Vilyuiskaya street, there, by the way, and the conditions are much better.And in "Butyrka", you can simply open a museum in prison.However, until this issue and decided not to.Some officials believe that there is a risk of absconding criminals in transit.And there are more "exotic" proposal - to move in "Butyrka" mausoleum.
Butyrskaya prison seen in the walls of famous writers, politicians, scientists, and so on. D. The most significant recent development was the shortest stints Gusinsky.He was here most blatnogo place - the bed by the window on the first tier, in his cell, even a TV set.
And yet, right now you can see a TV in each chamber.In "Butyrka" also has a library with a good selection of thrillers, classics and fiction.
In his spare time the prisoners are engaged in a wide variety of cases.They are masters of instruments for tattooing, made from tin cans and pots knives, some even manage to construct a homemade gun.Habitual entertainment "cons" - dominoes, backgammon and chess.The card is in prison play is prohibited.For this, of course, today is not shot, but in the cooler can be put.With power no problem.While just a few years ago it was much worse.By the way, since 1996, women are no longer placed here.
What did not happen in jail number 2, some rumors are still rife with Moscow.Butyrskaya prison saw for its long history of a lot of talented shoots.There is still a legend of the lieutenant Lantsova that is constantly engaged in hooliganism.In "Butyrka" it planted more than once, but each time he managed to get out.Also, they say that one of the prisoners escaped directly from the investigator's office.And hide until the Second World War.
tried and tried to escape in the post-Soviet era.In 1992, two inmates pulled out a metal grid in the exercise yard, climbed onto the roof, jumped down from the height of the third floor and fled.However, they detained them in a few days.
In 1996, she decided to carry out an escape.She gave herself for prisoner who really should have been free, and quietly left the territory of the detention center.We held it in 3 days.
In 2000, the flight was able to implement a citizen of Georgia.However, they caught it in 5 days.In the same year from death row, spoons dig up a couple of days the cement floor, escaped three dangerous criminals.Two of them were found after 3 weeks, and the third was caught only in April 2003.
But the most spectacular escape from Butyrskaya made 26-year-old prisoner Vitaly Ostrovsky (Belarus).It happened on 22 April 2010.He jumped over the high fence of the detention facility during the escort.Find it still failed.Inspired escape Ostrovsky, two days after his "heroism" had fled 24-year-old Vitaly Loktev convicted of child abuse.The man forced the bars of the window and jumped from the roof of the insulator.But this attempt was, fortunately, failed - they found him on the same day.
Since 1971 there is a museum, but to get to it is not so easy.Visit it allowed only at the request of a legal entity.But if it did succeed, then tour in Butyrskaya remember.The museum, for example, you can see a lot of amazing artifacts recovered from the stomachs of prisoners: scissors, screws, spoons.But one prisoner at a time even swallowed 28 pieces of chips dominoes.I had to get them surgically.Impressive as various improvised weapons: knives, pistols, machine for tattoo.
- On a plot of the comedy "Mimino" 8 camera, "Butyrka" the protagonist Valiko Mizandari.This he personally reported when applying for pilot training.
- In 2001, it was founded by a group of "Butyrka".The name musicians gave the team after an attempted escape of prisoners in 2001.There is another group, who sang a song about the prison number 2 - "Cross Ace".Butyrskaya prison because of their compositions became even more famous, and far beyond the borders of Russia.
- where scenes were filmed prison series "Seventeen Moments of Spring".Rumor has it that, when the prison corridors paced artists in the form of the SS and the Gestapo, some prisoners from among subservient jokingly exclaimed, "Oh, we have come!»
- visited in "Butyrka" and Hollywood actor Mickey Rourke, in order to get used to the way inthe movie "Iron Man 2".
So, it's time to take stock.One of the most famous prisons Russia is considered to Butyrskaya prison, the address of which, incidentally, in the near future may change.However, so far, despite the fact that the detention center no longer meets the many requirements and sanitary standards, do not hurry to resettle detainees.But even if this be done, the building prison number 2 is to direct people to the horror of many years.