Past participle .Suffixes past participles .Passive participle in past tense

Russian language - a set of rules that must not only know and understand in order to correctly write and speak beautifully."Communion" - one of the important topics mastered that, you can learn laconic, but expressive speech.Of particular difficulty is the past participle.Although, if you come to study carefully, then you can understand.

difference between sentences with participles and without

compare proposals: one involved with trafficking, and the second - a difficult subordinate.The first option is more concise, beautiful and poetic than the second.

With communion

Without communion

Look penetrated the soul.

gaze that penetrates the soul.

is especially important to be able to replace the clauses for copywriters in fulfilling orders, which indicates the accuracy of "conductivity" of texts after the introductory words, prepositions, conjunctions, and just on the list of "water" expressions.

Communion as part of the speech

Many hard-given understanding of this part of the speech.Children even compose about this funny poems:

boundless misfortune -
Learn leaning Communion!I thoroughly
While the passive start
What is more painful?

Of course school is known that the sacrament - it is not a simple form of the verb, because it has properties and a verb, and adjective.From the verb part of speech it has the form and time, and the adjective - gender, number, case, full or short form.There is also a real past participle and the passive.This function - the key - it is also received from the verb.


usually distinguished in the past participle and the present.It is understood that the definition of this category should understand semantic features of words, think about the action takes place at the moment or have already done.On the question of what is the past participle, there is a definite answer: the meaning of the word refers to the fact that here shows the result, not the process.You can compare the two versions of "running boy" and "ran the boy."In the first case, it uses the present time, because the child commits an act in the moment.In the second case, the child has completed running and standing in front of us.Consequently, the sacrament - the past.

active voice participles

How to distinguish the real from the past participle of the passive?Simply!First, you need to think about the meaning of the utterance.Consider the following example.

  1. «playing in the sand on the beach boy was extremely happy.""Game" - it is really the past participle, as he himself did.
  2. «In the thick grass, we hardly spotted grasshopper chirp."This example also used the past participle in the active voice.After all, it is clear that it is the insect itself to perform the following action - chatter.
  3. «got out of the windbreak bear himself wildly afraid of seeing people."And here it is clear that toed the owner of the forest itself has made action.Therefore, the word "got out" - is also the past participle of the active voice.

The passive participle in past tense verb form

, considered by us, may indicate the action that produces an object someone else.Then, the past participle is passive.For a more complete understanding of this should be considered examples.

  1. «dress, put on a girl, so she had to face that everything is looked at the little girl with a smile of tenderness."From the context it is clear that the outfit itself can not do anything.So, "to wear" - a passive participle, because the girl has an effect, it's the same dress she wore.
  2. «Tanya Washed dishes sparkling clean."And here it is clear that someone has made up a point in a certain job - you clean the plates themselves from the remnants of food can not.Therefore, the word "washed" is the passive participle of the past tense.

What are the main conditions Spelling suffixes have participles in the present, to understand like, it's easy, you just have to remember what the suffix refers to a specific conjugation.Education

past participles

They are formed by a verb stem any time and suffixes that help: loved - loved, like - who wanted and dreamed - dreamed feed - feed, carry - nёsshy, climb - got out.These are examples of education past participles active voice.On the pledge it indicates that all actions committed by the objects themselves.For passive past participles fit other examples: to wish - I wish, lead - driven, obsmeyat - obsmeyat, promise - promise.

suffixes past participles active voice

does this form of the verb stem with the help of suffixes: -vsh-, -sh- .Type and transient in this case irrelevant.As used in the formation of participle suffix depends only on completion of the verb stem.

  1. If it ends in a vowel, it is written -vsh- .(Examples: paint - paint, build - build, look - looked.)
  2. If the end of the base is a consonant, it is necessary to put the suffix -sh- .(Examples: carry - Driven to bear - nёsshy.)
  3. If participle is formed from the verb to -t , the suffix -vsh- will be written after that vowel, which was in the original form of the verb in front -t.(Example: wash - myvshy, laughing - laughing and hanging - hanging.)

Table education past participles active voice

active participle

initial form of the verb



































transition and determine the type of participles

To check transitivity Communion, you need the verb, forming it, to put a question to the dependent noun.If this design is appropriate question accusative without a preposition, it is a transitive verb.For example: watch (what?) Film, print (what?) Abstract.The design "run (where?) On the way," the question "what?" Will not work, then it is an intransitive verb, participle, and will have the same category, respectively.

Overlooking problems should not arise: if the action is in the process - it is an imperfect form if already happened - perfect.

Education passive participles in the past tense

They are formed from a transitive verb an appropriate time.From verbs imperfective participles there quite a bit.


The verb ends


from the verb owls. / Nessov.type


H - / - nn-











under fire

-ene - / - enn-






littered, gift


-ot, -nut + monosyllabic verbs





chopped, beaten

On the table there is now only one important question: when suffixes passive past participles are written with one "n", and when the two?It is important to remember a few rules nemudrenyh.One "n" will have participles imperfect form, if they are:

  • are not dependent words, prefixes, suffixes -ova- / -ёva- : fried, boiled, smoked;
  • brief communion: a partnership is formed, the wife wearing makeup.

two "n" have full passive past participle derived perfective verbs with the presence of:

  • dependent words: sturgeon fried in oil;peas cooked in broth;
  • -ova suffixes - / - ёva- (Examples include: 1. Pampered Mom child screaming in the store. 2. Enchanted her charming eyes, a man fell in love with a beautiful woman).

Communion "spoiled" and "Enchanted» have the same syntactic function as adjectives, that is, in the sentence are often definitions.

past participle active voice also can have a return suffix Xia .For example: a cockroach hiding, dumped sand laughed beauty scare a fly.

exceptions to the general rules

But always in the Russian language has its exceptions.Words such as "seek", "love" and "take", unable to form a passive participle.There are such a feature of verbs ending in -sti : they can be reincarnated in the passive past participle.For example:

  • Weave.(The grandfather woven baskets so convenient to collect mushrooms.)
  • steal.(Stolen cat sneakers a long time we could not find.)
  • To gain.(Sharik newfound bone is very pleased him, because of what he wagged his tail happily.)
  • Find.(When found cribs teacher discovered, Bob realized that we must find a way to cheat better, but the more he is cunning, the more he had to know.)

Knowing the rules of the Russian language - it's not a guarantee that the person will be able to write and speakcorrectly.They need to be understood.And it is extremely important to develop the ability to use their knowledge in practice.