Telegonia - what is it?

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In the XIX century was born the theory, which argued that hereditary traits female children affects their first sexual partner, mother.This representation is not based on the experimental data but still causes concern and controversy still.So Telegonia - a lie or the truth?We understand.

emergence of the term "Telegonia."History Research

components are two words - "far" and "generating".There is also a myth, giving rise Telegonia.According to him, the son of Odysseus and Circe nymph, Telegonia, ruined accident, as well as ignorance of the father of its existence.

Telegonia theory goes back to Aristotle's assumptions.He believed that the inheritance of individual traits is not only from the real parents, but also of all the males from which a female had a previous pregnancy.At the turn of XIX-XX centuries belief in the theory has been particularly prevalent in the breeders who worked with different types of pets.One of the most famous examples of allegedly supporting the vision of the is the case with Lord Morton's mare, who described Charles Darwin.The horse had a 1/8 English and 7/8 of Arab blood.Was it a case of pairing with quagga, after which the mare stallion covered only her breed.After that were born foals, which are stiffening the coat, suit, dark spots and stripes were like quagga, as if his blood had 1/16.This case is regarded as an example of Telegonia, but some scientists, including Charles Darwin, considered the similarity of the external signs of archaic manifestation.In favor of the latter is the fact that the foals can have bands, even if their mother did not have a pairing with quagga or zebra.

Further experiments

breeder K. Ewart experimented with eight thoroughbred mares and a male zebra.The result was obtained by thirteen hybrids.After that mares stallions covered their breed.18 pups were born, and none had signs zebroid.Researcher Ivan Ivanov conducted similar experiments, but never got the facts confirming Telegonia.

In 2014 a study was published that confirm the existence of the phenomenon.The article was posted in Ecology Letters, and told about the experiment.It was: males were divided into two groups, one of which is fed by nutrient-rich food, and the other received a meal that does not contain a sufficient amount of vitamins.The young females mated males of different sizes.With the arrival of the first maturity of the partners have changed.The result is the offspring of a size determined by the diet of the first partner.But this experiment does not confirm full effect Telegonia, as there may be other options for obtaining such results.For example, the absorption of molecules of the first male seed immature eggs a female.

Telegonia: what is this term for society

idea theory support some breeders and horse breeders.They do not allow mating with females nechistoporodnymi animals because they believe that all subsequent descendants will be present undesirable genes.

Adherents of religious and conservative ideologies are used to maintain the effect Telegonia chastity from their supporters.This idea led to a resurgence of anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany.Esoterica also supports the theory.Her argument was reacting auras and bio partner during intercourse, which is stored in each of them throughout life.

arguments on the subject

Telegonia - true or false?In the XIX century genetics as a science did not exist, so there were various theories of inheritance set.For example, the philosopher and biologist Le Dantec explained transfer signs that they belong to the species purchased but morphologically hidden categories.These heritable traits can manifest itself in subsequent pregnancies the mother, according to scientists.But confirmation of his theory of Le Dantec was unable to provide.Delage opponent philosopher noted that the impact of the first signs of a partner is shown only in exceptional cases.Because of lack of evidence, he casts doubt on the fact Telegonia.

experiments Mendel laid the foundation for the laws of heredity.At first his work was not appreciated.In 1900, scientists conducted experiments confirming the hypothesis of Mendel.With the development of genetics Telegonia began to lose its relevance.

Telegonia: evidence

Proponents of this theory believe the signs of which are absent from their parents, but they were the previous female partner, an argument in its favor.The term has a number of other, similar in meaning of the name - "The laws of Rita" and "the effect of the first male."The belief that the features of the first male offspring will affect the future of the males kept in ancient times.For example, the Turkic tribes raiding the land of the Slavs, have sought to "spoil" as many girls, that the image basurmanina forever preserved in them.It was believed that a woman will give birth later the Turks, but by men of their own nationality.The confirmation of faith in Telegonia can be considered and the "right of first night" provided overlord in the Middle Ages.

«Laws Rita»

Telegonia - it was for the Slavs?The ancient race closely followed a set of rules that were aimed at preserving the family and cleanliness levels.For example, a fragment of one of the parts of the "Laws of Rita" reads: "... for the first man in the daughter leaves Images of the Spirit and the Blood ..." The rule says that you should not allow their children "foreigners", as it was believed that men of hiskind of danger does not bring the girls.According to the Vedas, the lost innocence of a foreigner woman will always wear others' blood in himself, that means a loss of connection with his race.As a result, children are born, which are very different from their parents behavior, thinking and development.Supporters Telegonia is considered that respect for the "laws of Rita" Slavic people made him invincible and rebellious.

Supporters Telegonia science

One reason scientists is the fact that only one set of eggs and does not change throughout life.In contrast to the male germ cells, which are able to update a few times a year.Also, female reproductive system is more sensitive to the adverse effects and subject to various mutations.Thus, the girl initially bears the seeds of future offspring, which have an impact on how to drink alcohol, borne diseases and other negative factors, as well as sexual partners.Exposure to the latter that was trying to confirm the PP Garyaev.Doctor of Biological Sciences conducted experiments on the study of the DNA using a method of laser spectroscopy.After repeated repetition of the experiment he found that the scattering spectrum of the molecule of heredity (her "phantom" intangible track) is maintained even after removing it from the device.PP Garyaev on the basis of the experiments conjectured that the first man leaves "wave autograph" of its DNA into the genetic code of women, which can not but affect the future children.Experiments, scientists were exposed to criticism in the scientific world, but that did not stop him to find many supporters.

Research scientists

Telegonia - it still is?There is speculation that some sort of small RNA blocks expression of maternal characteristics, but provides for the development of his father.This fact supporters Telegonia also considered one of the proofs of his theory.Another mechanism of scientist discovered AG Blaznyuchenko.It is based on the penetration of parts of the DNA into the egg.These fragments were formed after the collapse of sperm.Researcher A. Mingreym has a different opinion on how to Telegonia occurrence.His assumption is based on the features of the structure of hyaluronic acid, which is present in male germ cells.The molecule is able to capture the DNA chains, dissolve their shell and introduce alien genes.

In the period from 1973 to 1975 were carried out research aimed at studying ways of penetration of a foreign DNA in the germ cells.For example, the labeled thymidine is injected in male germ cells of the guinea pig.DNA was prepared from the testes, which are implemented in the ovaries of rabbits.By autoradiography, data were obtained that the labeled molecule of heredity penetrates into the nucleus of the oocytes and oocytes (mature and immature), and also in the epithelium of the embryo.

physiological preservation

fact save opportunities, "preserve" in the genital tract of the female partner's sperm is confirmed by all zoologists and animal breeders.This phenomenon was observed in vertebrates, only the differences in the duration of storage.For example, mammalian sperm cells remain functional for several months.In this regard, we can not exclude the female fertilization with sperm stored for subsequent sexual intercourse with another partner.

who denies "the effect of the first male»

Telegonia people cause a lot of controversy.Supporters of the theory believe that it refutes mainly those who do not want to infringe upon yourself in the physical pleasure.Deny Telegonia married men because they are afraid that their child can wear signs of their beloved former wife.Law Telegonia do not take for granted and many women.Proponents of the theory explained by the fact that few people kept chastity before marriage, as well as lack of interest in mental and physical health of their partners.More about

show signs

How can appear "foreign" traits in the offspring?Is it appears Telegonia?Truth or fiction all the provisions of the theory?The fact of existence of such features is explained as follows.

  1. atavism.This is a case of occurrence of unpredictable traits inherited from wild ancestors.For example, multimammate, excessive hairiness, the presence of a tail, wisdom teeth, and so on.The phenomenon manifests itself as a result of genetic reversion, ie unpredictable secondary mutations that restore the gene modified primary.
  2. phenotypic reversion.The phenomenon occurs in the interaction of different genes.For example, expression of antibiotic resistance, a great need for vitamins or amino acids, sensitivity to temperature change and so on.
  3. manifestation of recessive traits as a result of cleavage at certain combinations of parental genotypes.The phenomenon is mainly the parents who have strong heterozygous line.

Based on the scientific data that have been obtained experimentally and confirmed many times, we can say that science is not Telegonia has no basis.

explain the phenomenon scientifically

What do they say about this scientists?On the question of Telegonia - that is, geneticists answer that it is a manifestation of certain traits in offspring that were not the parents, but they were at the distant ancestors.Thus, manifest recessive traits, as well as atavism, spontaneous secondary mutations that restore the gene modified primary.The process of fertilization is accompanied by the birth of a zygote with a double set of chromosomes, which is inherited by each cell.Half of the genetic material inherited from the egg producer, the other part of the semen.In the case of penetration of the female germ cells of several sperm (polyspermy phenomenon), the nucleus of the egg is combined with a single sperm.Numerous experiments have shown that genetically black animal embryo that develops within the white mother always arises in individual black, even if the body was transported in a foster female.Thus, the law Telegonia has no support in the areas of genetics and reproduction.How Sciences - many hypotheses.

Summary

Telegonia - true or false?The issue is still controversial.In the scientific world evidence of the theory could not be found.Any unexpected manifestation of symptoms can be easily explained from the perspective of genetics or biology.But the mandatory preservation of chastity of our ancestors, the ban on sexual relations with "strangers" are regarded by supporters as an essential fact Telegonia.Is it so?Maybe in the old days shy valued stronger than it is now, or maybe the theory is an example of removing a father responsible for the child's good for nothing ...