Iron is present in the water in the form of di- and trivalent ions.How to clean drinking water and fluids from these contaminants?Current problem for ordinary families and large enterprises.Consider reasons which depend on the solubility of iron in water, forms pollutant removal methods ferrosoedineny.
Why is water from the tap is brown and yellow?
compounds of iron give the water a yellowish color, often an unpleasant taste, you can see pollution in the form of brown flakes.These phenomena - the deterioration of organoleptic properties of drinking water.Color Change - something that consumers pay attention to the water first.In addition, there are implications for human health.Adversely affecting the liver, teeth of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, hair and consumption of poor quality water from the tap, in which the iron is present.
Solubility in water is explained not only by reacting ferrosoedineny from the rocks with other substances in nature.Increases the concentration of Fe2 + and Fe3 + as a result of the corrosion process, which is constantly in the apparatus and water pipes made of iron alloys.Pipelines are gradually deteriorating, change the properties of products, which was used in the production of water with an admixture of iron.
What is the solubility of iron in the water?
chemical elements that gave the Latin name Ferrum, most common in the Earth's crust is in second place after aluminum.In large quantities on the planet there are deposits of iron pyrites and pyrite (its formula FeS2).Ferrosoedineniya found in rocks of volcanic and sedimentary origin in the form of hematite, magnesite, ironstone.
simple substance of iron - a silver-gray ductile metal, insoluble in water.Oxides and hydroxides, many iron salts also does not react with water.FeO Solubility in water is discussed in relation to its ability to oxidize to ferric oxide.When we speak of an aqueous solution of FeO, the mean content of ferrous ions.In some water sources, it reaches 50 or more milligrams per 1 liter.This high concentration, such drinking water should be purified.
As iron gets into natural waters?
physical and chemical erosion leads to fragmentation, dissolution and destruction of rocks containing iron compounds.As a result of reactions occurring in nature are released ions Fe2 + and Fe3 +.They are actively involved in redox processes.The divalent ion is oxidized, it donates an electron and becomes triply.The solubility of iron in the water - it is the presence of the cation Fe2 +.As a result of the reactions taking place in a solution obtained by various salts.Among these are soluble, such as sulfates, and insoluble (sulfides, carbonates).When iron removal of such water-soluble form is converted into an insoluble, formed flakes precipitated.Divalent iron is oxidised to trivalent in the presence of oxygen or other oxidizing agents (ozone, chlorine).
Transformations ions eventually lead to the emergence of resistant to further oxidation of brown rust, its conventional structure can be represented in this form: Fe2O3 • nH2O.A particle of Fe3 + in the complex include inorganic and organic compounds that occur in surface waters.
ferrosoedineny Are the contents in natural waters?
concentration of chemical elements and types of iron in the water depends on the species composition of the crust and the status of different sources.Simultaneously may be present are divalent and trivalent iron compounds, organic forms such as iron bacteria and colloidal substances (soluble and insoluble).
If there are deposits of sulfate ores, it is more likely that high concentrations of ferrous iron is present.Solubility in water ferrosoedineny increases with the temperature near the volcanic areas.In rivers and lakes, higher iron content, if there is a discharge of wastewater metallurgical and chemical plants.
How to purify water from the iron?
To remove ferrosoedineny used reagent and reagentless ways.The basis of most processes is the oxidation of ferrous ion to the trivalent cation.Similarly, received from other impurities in the water - is converted into insoluble compounds and are removed by a filter.This principle is based the work of most industrial installations.What
iron solubility in water, measured by the instrument.Then carried deferrization chemicals: oxygen, chlorine, ozone, potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide.A chemical oxidation reaction, and the resulting insoluble precipitate.It can not only filter, and remove decantation after settling method (fused to precipitate pure water).When ozonation and chlorination disinfection takes place at the same time (disinfection).It is believed that the use of ozone - a promising method, because chlorine is harmful to human health.
What are the ways of iron removal of small amounts of water?
The home of these reagents can be used hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate.How to clean the water from the iron if you want to get a small amount for a short period of time?When adding a peroxide to the water fall flakes of sediment.It is necessary to wait, so that he sank to the bottom of the tank and drain or pass it through a conventional filter pitchers.This stripped of contaminated water suitable for drinking and cooking.
to organic forms of iron these methods are ineffective.Those reagents mentioned above, fast enough precipitated colloidal particles.
Ion exchange and catalysis - methods of iron removal
existing standalone installation, operating on the principles of catalysis, ion exchange.The devices are used for water purification in small industrial enterprises and cottage.
Iron catalytic method erases with a special backfill produced from natural and synthetic raw materials.Filter for iron removal of water - a metal container.Inside placed backfill and water tight.The substance is a catalyst for the oxidation of ferrous iron, translating it insoluble in different forms.
ion exchange removal of iron using cation derived from ion exchange resins, such as zeolite (mineral).In recent years, arranged production of synthetic products for the iron removal by ion exchange.
Why need an alternative reagents?
-performance chemicals being used, if there is an admixture of the harmful - the iron in the water.Types of iron are different, so you need to seek the optimal solution, the appropriate method for the purification of water from a particular source, for which a form and concentration of iron.
Chlorination thing of the past, this way a negative impact on water quality and human health.Aeration or enrichment of water by air - a method of virtually devoid of drawbacks.Oxygen is passed through water, the iron is oxidized, and the insoluble precipitate flakes can be removed by filtration or sedimentation.
Deironing made without chemicals - using an electrochemical method.The two electrodes are immersed in a container of water to be erased.The negative electrode - the cathode - attracts and retains positively charged iron ions, in whatever form they may be.Another nonchemical method - the use of special membranes.
Each of these methods has not only advantages but disadvantages.The choice of method depends on the form in which the iron is present in the water.