early forties of the XX century was rich in significant events for science.It was marked by the greatest discoveries in the field of nuclear physics and meant to humanity great opportunities utilitarian appointment of a new powerful source of energy.But the world political situation at the time determined the course of history.Attempts by scientists in several countries to direct the use of nuclear energy for peaceful course proved futile, as the priority was put in favor of the formation of a new type of weapon.
first in the creation of nuclear weapons hit the United States.Development was carried out under the project code-named "Project Manhattan."In the course of this project it was created by three bombs that have been given the names of "Trinity," "Fat Man" and "The Kid."Bomb "Trinity" was detonated during nuclear tests, "Fat Man" was dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima atomic explosion has received from the "kids".
The story goes that in August 1945, exactly three weeks after the testing of the first atomic bomb, US President Harry Truman ordered the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.Accordingly, on August 6 this year, he sounded an atomic explosion over Hiroshima, and three days later, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.American government believed that by doing so put an end to the war between the United States and Japan.
atomic explosion caused kolosalnye consequences.After the bombing and the explosion in Hiroshima death toll numbered about one hundred and forty thousand people.Nagasaki also lost about eighty thousand people.Japan had no choice but to surrender.Therefore, on August 15 the Japanese government signed the instrument of surrender.In the history of the world nuclear explosion sounded in the two Japanese cities, was the only one explosion, specifically aimed at the destruction of the people.
Since originally opening in the field of nuclear physics were aimed at practical application for peaceful purposes, the research in this direction continued.Already in 1949, scientists of the Soviet Union began to develop projects for the nuclear power industry.In the days of May 1950 began construction of the world's first nuclear power plant near the village of Obninsk, Kaluga region, and four years later it was already running.A few years later it was commissioned the first phase of the second Soviet nuclear power plant in the Tomsk region in the city of Seversk.In the same year began the construction of the Beloyarsk plant in the Urals city of Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Region.Six years later it was commissioned the first phase of the station, and a few months after starting Beloyarki was commissioned in the first block of the nuclear power plant near the town of Novovoronezh.At full power, the station earned after the start of the second stage in 1969.The year 1973 was marked by the launch of the Leningrad nuclear power plant.
Construction notorious nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine, near Chernobyl, conducted in 1978 and completed commissioning of the fourth unit in 1983.Operation of this object became the failed project to the then Soviet Union.The Chernobyl accident was not alone.In September 1982, during the renovation of the first block of the reactor accident occurred at the station, followed by the release of radioactivity into the atmosphere of the gas-vapor mixture.As a result, the ejection was struck by a large area, even though the authorities officially stated that the environment is not damaged.
decisive role in the fate of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident has played, which took place in 1986.A nuclear explosion in Chernobyl thundered in 00 hours 23 minutes April 26 during the test of the next turbogenerator.The explosion completely destroyed the reactor turbine hall roof collapsed, there were more than thirty seats of fire.By 5 o'clock in the morning all the fires were liquidated.The accident was followed by a powerful radioactive emissions.During the explosion killed two members of the station, over a hundred people were taken to Moscow.As a result of the accident more than a hundred and thirty employees of the Chernobyl nuclear power station and the rescue workers got radiation sickness.
In general, the generalized data of the Chernobyl nuclear explosion claimed 28 lives, and about six hundred people have received significant radiation dose, which many members of the bleak events seen to this day.