In the 17th century, the most lucrative and prestigious sector was foreign trade.Thanks to the Middle East to supply the scarce goods: jewelry, incense, spices, silk and so on.The desire to have it all, and at stimulating the establishment and further strengthening of domestic production.This was the first impetus to the development of domestic trade in Europe.
Throughout the Middle Ages there was a gradual increase in the volume of foreign trade.By the end of the 15th century, as a result of a number of geographical discoveries, there was a noticeable jump.European trade has become global, and the medieval era went smoothly during the period of initial accumulation of capital.During the 16-18 th centuries was the strengthening of economic cooperation between a number of areas and the formation of national marketplaces.At the same time it marked the formation of national states centralized absolute monarchy.The whole economic policy of these countries was aimed at the formation of the national market, the development of domestic and foreign trade.Great importance was also given to strengthening the industry, agriculture, means of communication.
Start folding nationwide market
By the 18th century to the general field of trade relations of Russia gradually began to join the new regions.For example, in the center of the country with the Left-Bank Ukraine began to receive food and some industrial products (nitrate, gunpowder, glass).At the same time Russia was a platform for the sale of products of local artisans and factories.Don area began to receive the fish, meat and bread.Back from the Central and Volga districts were utensils, shoes, fabrics.Kazakhstan came cattle, in exchange for which adjacent territory supplied bread and some manufactured goods.
great influence on the storage provided fairs nationwide market.The largest national importance and which had become Makarevskaya.These products were brought from various parts of the country: Vologda, west and north-west of Smolensk, St. Petersburg, Riga, Yaroslavl and Moscow, Astrakhan and Kazan.Among the most popular may be mentioned precious metals, iron, furs, bread, leather, fabrics and various animal products (meat, fat), salt, fish.What has been acquired at the fair, then the odds across the country: the fish and furs - Moscow, bread and soap - to St. Petersburg, metal products - in Astrakhan.For a century the trade fair were significantly increased.So, in 1720, the year it was 280 thousand. P., And 21 years later - already 489,000.
However, Makary, gained national significance and other fairs: Trinity, Orenburg, Annunciation and Archangel.Irbit, for example, had a connection with the sixty Russian cities of 17 provinces, it has been a lack of cooperation with Persia and Central Asia.Svenskaya fair was connected with the 37th cities and 21 th province.Together with Moscow, all these fairs were of great importance in the union as the regional and district and local marketplaces at the all-Russian market.
economic situation in developing countries
Russian peasant, after complete its legal enslavement primarily was nevertheless obliged to pay the State, as well as his master, rents (natural or money).But if, for example, to compare the economic situation in Russia and Poland, the Polish peasants for service in the form of serfdom increasingly intensified.Thus, for them it was eventually 5-6 days a week.For the Russian peasant it is equal to 3 days.
payment obligations in the form of money presupposes the existence of the market.On the trading floor of the farmer should have access.Formation of the nationwide market stimulated landlords to own and sell farm products, as well as (and no less) and the state - to the production of fiscal cash receipts.
Economic development in Russia from the 2nd half of the 16th century
During this period began to form major regional trading platforms.By the 17th centenary of the strengthening of business relations was carried out on a national scale.As a result of the expansion of cooperation between the individual areas of a new concept - "all-Russian market."Although its strengthening to a large extent prevented chronic Russian roads.
the middle of the 17th century, there are some preconditions, which arose due to all-Russian market.His education, in particular, contributed to the deepening of the social division of labor and production territorial specialization, as well as the necessary political situation that emerged due to the reforms, which were aimed at creating a single state.
main shopping area of the country
from the 2nd half of the 16th century were formed and strengthened by such major regional markets such as the Volga region (Vologda, Kazan, Yaroslavl - livestock products), North (Vologda - the main grain market, Irbit, Solvychegodsk- fur), North West (Novgorod - sales of hemp and linen products), Center (Tikhvin, Tula - the purchase and sale of metal products).But the main universal trading floor at that time was Moscow.In it there were about one hundred and twenty specialized series, where you could buy wool cloth, silk and fur, fat and bread, wine, metal products, both domestic and foreign production.
Effect of state power
Russian market, which arose as a consequence of the reforms contributed to increased entrepreneurial initiative.As far as the public consciousness, at his level arose the idea of the rights and freedoms of the individual.Gradually, the economic situation in the era of primitive accumulation of capital led to the freedom of entrepreneurship both in trade and in other industries.
activities in agricultural areas are gradually replacing the feudal government decisions to change land use and agriculture.The government promotes the formation of a national industry that influenced, in turn, to the development of the all-Russian market.In addition, the state patronized the introduction of agriculture, more perfect than it was before.
in foreign trade government seeks to acquire colonies and to pursue a policy of protectionism.Thus, everything that was previously characteristic of the individual trading cities, has now become a political and economic direction of the state as a whole.
The main feature of the epoch of primitive accumulation of capital is considered to be the emergence of commodity-money relations and market economy.All this has left a special mark on all spheres of social life of the period.However, it was somewhat controversial epoch, in fact, like other transition periods when there was a struggle between the feudal controlling the economy, society, politics, spiritual human needs and new trends of bourgeois freedoms, due to the expansion of trade scales, which contributed to the elimination of territorial isolation andlimitations of feudal estates.