Ivan Mazepa - one of the most famous Cossack hetman of Ukraine.The story left a mark as a politician, who fought for the independence of their state.In 2009 in Ukraine was established the Order of Mazeppa, it is awarded for achievements in the national diplomacy, philanthropy and public construction.
Ivan Mazepa Mazepa Ivan Stepanovich was born in March 20, 1640, some sources say that a few years later in a remote area Kamenz, later renamed Mazepians, near the White Church.The child was the son of Ukrainian gentry.Ivan's mother, Mary Magdalene was a respected, educated woman with his political views.Throughout her life she was sovetchitsey son.The last 13 years of his life was Mother Superior Kiev-Pechersk Monastery.
Father Ivan Mazepa Stepan, Adam served surrounded by Hetman Vygovsky.
Since childhood Ivan Mazepa received an excellent education.In the estate of his father, he studied horsemanship and possession of a sword, he studied various sciences.Then he became a student of Kyiv-Mohyla Collegium.Apt Pupil is interested in the works of Greek and Roman philosophers, tends to European literature, speaks several languages.
After graduation, his father sent Ivan to Pages' service to the Polish king.At the court of Ivan Mazepa manifests itself educated, promising nobleman.He was sent to receive further education in the universities of Western Europe.During the years of his studies, he managed to visit Italy, France, Germany and Holland.
future Ukrainian hetman fascinated people at a glance.Not only the power of his mind, but also flattering speeches and external qualities were his trump cards at the time of lifting the corporate ladder.
situation in Ukraine
Ivan Mazepa, whose biography is full of inaccuracies and today, has come a long way to the top of his political career.At the end of the XVII century Cossack Ukraine had not the best of times.Lands usually three Hetman, who relied on various foreign powers.
Peter Doroshenko was a puppet of the Turkish sultan, who had his own political interests in this area.
Hetman Samoilovich held a pro-Russian stance.
Ivan Mazepa, according to some sources, was excommunicated from the court for a fight with co-workers, on the other - for liaison with a married pannoy.But be that as it may, in 1664 John Casimir sent an army to the Left-Bank Ukraine, Mazepa has left the body and went to his native village of his father.
In 1665, after the death of his father, Ivan Mazepa took his position and became epicalyx Chernigov.
Dreaming of a political career, he marries a rich widow Anna Fridrikevich, which soon dies and leaves him a vast fortune and useful links.Anna's father Simon Polovtsian being a general notation carries out the patronage of his son-and arranges it in the service to the hetman Doroshenko.At the "Turkish" Hetman Mazepa confident and cunning became a captain Nadvornaya army and later a clerk.
In 1674 Doroshenko sends Mazepa in the Crimean Khanate and Turkey.As a present to the Sultan sends nevolnikov- left bank Cossacks.In Crimea, it breaks Ivan Sirko, but does not kill it, and sends Samoilovich.Triggering of persuasion of people, some sources claim that fiery speech Mazepa had saved his life.
Ivan Mazepa, whose biography is full of sharp turns of fate, became babysit Left Bank Hetman, and later for the loyal service he was appointed esaul.Samoylovich Mazepa often sent to Russia, where they won the favor of the king's favorite, Prince Golitsyn.
in July 1687 with the participation of Mazepa his patrons was elected hetman of Left-Bank Ukraine, and his predecessor Samoylovich with family and retinue was sent to Siberia.
Some sources claim that Mazepa bribed Golitsyn for help, others refute this fact.
Nevertheless, in 1689, when the Russian throne young Peter, they fought a close friendship.Experienced Hetman gave young Majesty advice on foreign policy relations with Poland.
Meanwhile, Ukraine has been troubled.In 1690, an uprising Petrik.Mazepa, relying on their own troops and assistance Peter brutally suppressed it.Many contemporaries believed that Ivan Mazepa, the history of the reign of which was very bloody, with the youth did not differ loyalty and devotion.Our contemporaries refer to these as political flair.
alliance with Charles XII
Be that as it may, the Great Northern War, which lasted in Russia 21 years, the Left Bank Hetman pushed for an alliance with the Swedish king.
In 1706, after the Russian left alone with the Swedish king, Mazepa conceived autonomy of Little Russia.Denunciations Peter I of the impending change Cossack hetman came regularly, but they believe he did not want.
In 1708 Ivan Stepanovich Mazeppa refused to join the king's army, and together with a small part of the Cossacks, mostly officers, went to Charles.
Peter I was furious, because he believed Mazepa not only a subordinate ally, but also a friend.
In 1709 Mazepa betrayal of the king led to the complete destruction of Zaporozhye Sech.