Theoretical methods: a brief description of

Any scientific research involves the creation of a coherent structure of interconnected beliefs, ideas and facts.The fundamental difference of scientific knowledge from the everyday is a must need for critical reflection on all the proposed ideas and evidence, as well as the pursuit of an objective view and a rigorous methodology, both in receipt verification of the facts, and in the knowledge.There are empirical and theoretical research methods.In this article we will dwell on the past.However, before we turn to the mandatory characteristics of the scientific approach.

criterion Popper

This is the so-called criterion of falsifiability of theoretical research.The author of the concept is well-known contemporary British philosopher Karl Popper.His idea is that any scientific theory, to really be called scientific, must be subjected to practical experimental verification.For example, the scientific-pedagogical research involves the study of the psychological and pedagogical processes in the formation of personality and the objective laws of learning.As a consequence, elimination of effective educational methodologies.In this case, the criterion is a reflection of the actual results in the application withdrawn as a result of research methodologies.

theoretical research methods

Any activity, if it claims to be scientific in nature, should involve not only the criteria for testing the ideas experimentally, but also an effective methodology for the construction of theories and the search for new facts.It has long been - since the days of ancient thinkers - share the empirical and theoretical research methods.The theoretical level in science is an objective reflection of the processes and phenomena, internal patterns and relationships, which are achieved through the practical methods for processing data obtained through observation, experiment, and so on.Thus, the theoretical research methods are a kind of superstructure over the empirical.The latter are represented sensual forms expressed in the information obtained directly by human senses, and special devices.Pile of empirical facts is not an end in itself, its ultimate goal - a systematization, as well as further construction of laws, theories, and ideas about the world.Theoretical methods of research - is a logical abstraction, which is created through the establishment of scientific hypotheses and theories on the basis of existing knowledge.Methods of theoretical studies have a number of different options:

  • abstraction.So is the process of abstracting from certain properties in its knowledge of the subject for in-depth study any particular its part.For example, the results are the abstraction concepts such as color, curvature, beauty and so on.
  • Formalizing - a symbolic display of knowledge in the form of signs, when they take on the form of formulas and conditional values.
  • analogy.It is a kind of conclusion about a certain similarity between the two objects of any grounds on the basis of identity between them in other characteristics.
  • Case Modeling - the study of the object by means of abstract models and the subsequent transfer of the acquired knowledge to the study the original.
  • mental simulation - in the methodology is similar to a substantive, but here we use mental images.Also mentioned there are computer simulations that use the program, as well as a landmark - with the use of formulas and drawings.
  • idealization of - is the creation of certain concepts for objects that do not actually exist, but have a prototype of it.For example, a ball, an ideal gas, the geometric point, line, and so on.