What is the balance sheet?

concept of "balance" is used in the economic, accountancy.With it reflected interval indicators characterizing the sources of those or other resources as well as the direction in which they are used.Let us consider in more detail what the balance.

Terminology To better understand what the balance should be made to the direct meaning of the word.It has Latin roots.The word "balance" comes from the words bis, which means "two" and lanx - it scales.Thus, the term literally means "dvuchashie."This word is used as a symbol of equality and balance.

General characteristics

explaining what the balance should pay attention to the method used for its construction.The complex of the available data is entered in the double-sided table.This method is widely used in the economic analysis, accounting and planning.The system scheduled balances present labor, money and material.With their help and the subsequent formation of the projected distribution of certain types of raw materials, goods, finance, and operating reserves.

What is the balance sheet?

This term in financial accounting has two meanings.In a first for the balance of the results of equality must be understood.In this case, the results of credit and debit accounts, analytical and synthetic accounts are.According to a second value, the balance appears as one of the most important forms of reporting.It reflects the state of the assets of the company, expressed in monetary terms, on a given date.Thus, what is the balance sheet?It is a system torque performance, the importance of which is so large that it is often isolated in a separate reporting unit.As a supplement to the balance sheet are the various forms of boo.statements.Their task is to decrypt the data.Talking about what is the balance sheet, it should be said that it is a form, which reflects all the facilities of the company.

Document Structure The balance of present assets and liabilities.These are two equal parts.One of them shows the composition of funds, the second - the sources of their formation.What is the balance of the asset?This concept also comes from the Latin word.Translated it means "action," "activity."Accordingly, it is a liability balance?This is the inactive, "the passive" part.As an important feature of balance in favor equality of results of assets and liabilities, as these elements reflect the same thing, only in different ways.In the latter show up, and in the first - the sources of funds.Each element present in one or other part, namely, a balance sheet.They, in turn, are grouped into sections.For each line of the balance provided a serial number.This makes it easier to search.

Features fill

Experts recommend to make some form of balance for the different categories of stakeholders.Law is not regulated reporting structure.However, there are certain standards and rules.They prescribed only a list and the economic content of specific articles.Just the level of detail is determined by the balance of the company's own accountant.Today in Russia there is a tendency to simplify the structure of the document.So, for the past 30 years the number of items in the balance sheet has been reduced by half.

sources of information as they are the accounts.As a rule, the name of the same as the name of the accounting object.In any analysis, there are two parts: debit and credit.This division is due to the movement of funds - a decrease or an increase.Each book has an initial account balance - the balance for a specific object, and later its reduction or increase.Thus, at any time, you can set the final balance.To this residue is added to the initial amount of increase, and subtracted from the obtained amount of reduction.

classification accounts

elements, which take into account the economic resources are divided into 3 groups.The first is the active accounts.They reflect the types of households.means.Explaining what the assets of the balance sheet, it should be noted that the balance of these accounts can only be a debit.This is due to the fact that the reduction in funds is limited by their size.The second group - the passive account.They keep records of the sources of households.means.Their balance can only be a credit.The third group - the active-passive account.They keep records of both species and sources of funds.This group includes accounts for settlements with legal entities.The latter can act as a debtor or creditor.In the first case, account will have an active structure.


It intermediates between analytic and synthetic accounts.With the help of sub-accounts is carried out group of indicators.In particular, analytical accounts data are used to obtain additional information about the objects that are registered.

Classification balances

Separation is carried out using the following criteria:

  • time of writing.
  • sources.
  • amount of information.
  • nature of the activity.
  • Ownership.
  • object of reflection.
  • methods of purification.

In accordance with the time of drawing up the balances release:

  • Live.
  • Entrance.
  • Liquidation.
  • unification.
  • separation.

According to sources share balances:

  • General.
  • Inventory.
  • Book.

Depending on the volume of information, the balance may be consolidated or single.By the nature of the activities emit the documentation for the main and secondary areas.In accordance with the ownership balance sheets are cooperative, public, private, cooperative, public and mixed organizations.Their difference lies in the formation of the source of funds.Depending on the object of reflection distinguish distinct and separate balance sheets.By way of cleaning isolated documentation gross and net.It is also used in accounting for an alternative balance.This form is used to obtain evidence about the completeness and reflection of the reality of manufactured products, provided services or the execution of works.That is, what is the alternative balance?It is a way through which are shown in the account of materials consumed in the production of unit price and the actual output of the products.

Categorized by the time of writing

At the time of the company is made introductory documentation.What is the current balance, it is clear from the title.These summary tables are prepared for the entire period of the organization.In turn, the current balance is divided into initial, intermediate and final.Liquidation records compiled at the termination of activities.At division of a large company or a transfer of one or more units to another company formed by the separation balance sheet.When you combine the compiled relevant documentation.

important point

Before you will be drawn up annual accounts, to be held the balance of the Reformation.What it is?This is a procedure during which the distribution of profits for the year or the write-off of losses.The new financial period will start as if from scratch.Thus, on December 31 of the reporting year, the balance is carried Reformation.What is it for beginners to experts?This zero balance accounts accounting financial result.In this case, close the MF."Sales" (90) "Other income and expenses" (91), and "profits and losses" (99).

sources drafting

Compilation of inventory balances is carried out only on the basis of the inventory of assets.This accounting treatment is necessary in case of a new company on the basis of proprietary, pre-existing or in the case of changes in the economic form of the company.The book balance is formed according to records from the books.This information does not pass the pre-qualified by the inventory.For the general balance and inventory data are used accounts.

amount of information in a single

balance sheet activities of the enterprise.For the summary records are added the amounts that are registered in the number of single articles tables.At the same time to count the overall results of assets and liabilities.In such documents in separate columns reflects the state funds to those or other organizations.In the "Total" is the total figure for the entire company.

Other categories

as core business serves a direction that corresponds to the course, and the company's charter.All other activities are considered non-essential.The departments that are involved in it, can be maintained a separate balance sheet.Depending on the method of cancellation, allocate gross and net balances.The first include regulatory article.They are those in which the formation of the actual cost of funds deducted from the value of one or the other article.The net balance of regulatory areas are excluded.This procedure is referred to as the "cleaning".

Detailed figures

For more specific information used synthetic and analytical accounts.The first reflects the generalized quantities that are characterized by economic means.In the analytical accounts used by more detailed specifications of accounting objects.On them is detailed information obtained from the synthetic papers.In the analytical accounts, reflecting material assets, contains not only financial performance, but also natural.Both groups show the same facts of economic activity of the company.In this regard, the results and the records on the analytical and synthetic accounts to be the same.

In conclusion

Thus, considering the above information, it is clear that such a balance.Beginners professionals should pay attention to the process of its preparation.An entry in the summary tables - a very laborious work.Errors in the balance sheet can significantly affect the bottom line.