Arctic is a geographical area of the Earth, which is adjacent to the North Pole.Territorial water area includes part of the area of all oceans except the Indian.Also in this physiographic zone includes the continental margin of North America and Eurasia.By area, the Arctic covers about 27 million square meters.km.The southern part of the area covered by impassable tundra.
Fauna and Flora
Arctic climate is known for its harshness.That is why in this area flora represented only mosses, grasses, lichens and weed grasses.Here low temperatures even in summer.This causes such a meager variety of flora.In the Arctic zone there are no trees or fir trees, only dwarf shrubs.Most of the land takes a lifeless desert.The only flowering plant is the polar poppy.
fauna is a little more rich in species.Here live and hare, and wild reindeer and polar bears.The most rare representatives of fauna are bighorn sheep and musk ox, as well as a little furry hamster, lemming.From carnivores can distinguish wolves and foxes.Polar bears prefer the meat of animals marine fish.In addition, the region inhabited by arctic ermine, wolverine and gophers dlinnohvostye.Bolshinstvo birds nest in the tundra.Most often, this migratory species.In Arctic waters inhabited by walruses and seals, and narwhals, beluga whales, killer whales and baleen whales.
One of the most cold and snowy parts of the world it is considered the Arctic.In summer there the temperature rarely rises above zero degrees.In this area, there is a low radiation balance.Dominated by the glaciers, snow desert, tundra vegetation.
winter, the warmest month is January.The average temperature in the Arctic, this time ranges between -2 and -5 degrees.Adjacent waters are much colder than the air.In the Barents Sea, the temperature is -25 degrees C in Greenland and Chukotka - up to -36 degrees C, the Canadian and Siberian basin - to -50 degrees C. The lowest rates are observed in the northern zone of the area.There's temperatures often reach -60 degrees.Arctic climate may change at any moment due to breakthroughs deep warm cyclones.In this case, the temperature is increased by 7-10 degrees C. In summer, the highest rates are +2 ... 3 degrees C.
meteorological parameters glacial area in the last few hundred years have experienced significant fluctuations.We can say that the Arctic climate is changing.This is a problem of global proportions that has no solution.
Over the past 600 years there have been half a dozen significant warming, which directly affect the entire planet.During such weather fluctuations may follow global cataclysms that could harm all living things on Zemle.Stoit noted that the climate of the Arctic affects the speed of rotation of the planet and the general atmospheric circulation.Scientists have calculated that a serious meteorological jump in glacial area should occur in 2030.Even the most minimal impact will be significant for the planet.The fact that the temperature indicators in the Arctic steadily increased year by year.Moreover, the dynamics of changes in the past century has increased by 2 times.The sharp warming will lead to the extinction of many species of flora and fauna in the region.
Nature Arctic waters of
Relief - inhomogeneous, curved.The most significant is the continental shelf to the islands, located along the sea such as the Barents Sea, the Chukchi, Laptev, Kara and Siberian.Most deep-water basin is located in the central part of the Arctic basin - more than 5.5 km.As for the relief of the land, it is mainly flat.
Arctic environment rich in natural resources.In the first place, a gas and oil prices.In the Arctic, these undeveloped disproportionate amount of energy.According to preliminary estimates of experts, there are more than 90 billion barrels nefti.Tem least resource extraction in this region is extremely difficult.Furthermore, this process is dangerous from the standpoint of global environment.In the case of an oil spill accident will eliminate virtually impossible because of the high waves, numerous icebergs and dense fog.
As you know, the water area of the region flooded by icebergs of different sizes.However, in the waters of the Arctic, there are so-called ice cap, which reflects most of the sunlight.That is why the planet does not warm up to the critical temperature.
can confidently state that the Arctic ice plays a critical role in the existence of all life on Earth.In addition, they control the circulation of water in the world okeane.Stoit noted that over the past 25 years, the Arctic sea ice has decreased by three-quarters of the total weight.Today the cap covers the entire 5.1 million square meters.km.However, this is not enough to Earth was not warmed with each passing year more and more rapidly.
Dead Zone subdued
many centuries was considered barren Arctic territory in which people can not survive for a few days.Nevertheless, over time, this myth was dispelled.In the 16th century as a result of long expedition, which carried out the Russian sailors, it was compiled the first map of the waters of the Arctic Ocean.In 1937, the Arctic were carried out flights of Chkalov and Baydukova.
Today in this region there are several drifting stations on ice floes.Complexes intervene a small houses for polar and specialized research equipment.