What is the role of water in a human cell

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literally from childhood everyone knows that water for us is very important.Hygiene, cleaning, drinking - each of these integral part of life is associated with water.Gradually, studying the world, and the child learns about the role of water in the cell.Perhaps only from this point it becomes clear how large its value: without water is inconceivable life itself.Due to its properties, it allows the operation of complex organisms.

structure of the molecule

role of water in the life of the cell is directly related to its structure.Everyone knows the formula of the main fluid in the body.Each water molecule composed of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms.Connect them into a whole thanks to the polar covalent bonds, based on the formation of a common electron pair of two atoms.A characteristic feature of the water molecules is its electrical asymmetry.The oxygen atom more electronegative, it attracts more electrons of hydrogen atoms.The consequence - of common offset pairs of electrons toward oxygen atom.

Dipole What is the role of water in the cell depends on the characteristics inherent in the substance.As a result, the overall bias pair of electrons it acquires polarization.For a molecule of water is characterized by two poles: Each hydrogen atom has a partial positive charge and oxygen - in part negative.Together they form a neutral molecule.

Thus, each structural unit of water is a dipole.Features of the structure of the molecule and determines the nature of the relationship between the adjacent structures.Partially drawn negative oxygen atom of hydrogen atoms of other molecules.Between them, a so-called hydrogen bonds.Each molecule of water in this way seeks contact with her four roommates.All named nuances structure determined by the biological role of water in the cell.


Hydrogen bonds characteristic of water molecules determines many of its properties.The connections between the oxygen and hydrogen are of particular strength, i.e. in order to break them must be expended impressive energy.As a result, the water has a high boiling point and melting and vaporization.Among these substances, water itself - the only substance present in the world simultaneously in three states of aggregation.What is the role of water in the cell, and based on this it features.

interaction with hydrophilic substances

water particles inherent ability to form hydrogen bonds allows the main body fluids dissolve many compounds.Such substances are called hydrophilic, that is "friendly" water.These include ionic compounds: salts, acids and bases.The hydrophilic and nonionic materials include compounds having polarity.Their molecules contain charged groups.This amino acid, sugars, simple alcohols and some other compounds.
role of water in the life of the cell is to create the environment necessary for the acceleration of reactions.The solution is a state of matter in which all of its molecules can move much more freely, i.e. becomes significantly higher reactability than in conventional form.

Thanks to these properties the water has become the primary medium for the flow of the vast majority of chemical reactions.Moreover, for example, hydrolysis, and the entire set of redox processes are carried out only with the direct participation of the main fluid cells.


huge role in the life of the water cell is undeniable.She is involved in all important processes.For example, water is necessary for photosynthesis.One of its stages, photolysis of water, is to separate hydrogen atoms and include them in the resulting organic compound.Thus they emit the released oxygen.

role of water in human and animal cells is associated with an already called hydrolysis, the destruction of the substances with the addition of water.One of the most important reactions of this type in the cell is the breakdown of ATP molecules derived from the release of energy that is used for other vital processes.

interaction with hydrophobic substances

Some proteins and fats, and nucleic acids are not soluble in water at all, or whether the process is very difficult.Such substances are called hydrophobic, that is "horrifying" water.The role of water in the cell and the body is associated with its interaction with these compounds.

water molecules are able to separate the hydrophobic substances from the fluid itself.As a result, a so-called interface.They carried out many chemical reactions.Thus, it is due to the interaction of phospholipids, which consists of the cell membrane, the water formed lipid bilayer.Heat capacity

biological role of water in the cell lies in its participation in thermoregulation.The specific heat of water is high enough.This means that the absorption amount of heat energy imposing water temperature varies only slightly.This characteristic helps her maintain a constant temperature inside the cell, which is necessary for the normal course of many processes and maintain a constant internal environment.

uniform heat distribution

Another feature of water - thermal conductivity.It also helps to maintain a constant internal environment.Water can carry an impressive amount of heat from the area of ​​the body where it is in excess of, those cells and tissues, which it lacks.

In addition, temperature regulation is carried out at the expense of water evaporation.Cooling occurs due to the fact that during the transition from one state to another must break the hydrogen bonds.And for this, as already stated, it requires a large expenditure of energy.

hydrostatic skeleton

role of water in the life of the cell does not end there.The main body fluid has another property: it is virtually not compressed.This characteristic allows the water to act as a hydrostatic skeleton in a cage.Water creates turgor pressure, thereby determining the properties of such cells and tissues as bulk and resilience.It is easy to understand the role of water in the cell, in this sense, if you look at the trees.The familiar shape of the leaves is created by high pressure in the cells.Similar examples in the world of organic mass.For example, all of the familiar form of the jellyfish, or roundworms is also supported by a hydrostatic skeleton.The loss of water cells, respectively, leads to the reverse process.It starts changing the shape: the leaves wither, the fruit shrivel, the skin loses its elasticity.

involvement in transporting substances

water molecules by means of hydrogen bonds are able to communicate not only with each other but also with other substances.As a result of this interaction appears surface tension plays a significant role in the transport of substances in the body.Thus, the consequence of the cohesive (adhesion molecules under the force of gravity, and in the case of water - by means of hydrogen bonds) is the movement of nutrients in plants capillaries.Through the same property, the water enters the soil through the root hairs of the plant.

Also, the surface tension makes it possible to capillary blood flow in animals and humans.Water is involved in the movement of substances and excretion of waste products.

turns out that the answer to the question "what is the role of water in the cell?" Is quite simple - it is huge.Due to the basic properties of the molecular structure of the liquid may be all the basic processes, without which life is unthinkable.Water enhances the reactivity of substances maintains the shape of cells and organs involved in their provision of all necessary is a part of many chemical reactions.Water - a source of life and it is certainly not a metaphor.All major metabolic processes associated with it, it also forms the basis of the interaction of different compounds.It is because of these properties of the water is the substance that is looking primarily at the time of study other planets in an attempt to understand whether they are suitable for life.