The peoples of the North and their culture

Earlier anthropologists counted 45 different nations living in the harsh climate of the North.They live in small groups, each one has its own language, traditions and religious beliefs.

Who are northern people?

term "peoples of the North" is increasingly diluted by "numerically small".According to official data, these are those, the number of representatives of which do not exceed a threshold of 50 000 people.However, if the lists will not be able to get the ones that still exceeded that figure, but live in the North, they honor the ancient traditions of their ancestors, and profess the same religion.If the peoples of the Far North to consider only small numbers, will throw out a list of Komi, Karelia and Yakutia.This is a fairly large group.

Legislative justification

In 1995, first came out over an ordered list of ethnic groups and peoples of the North, who not only live in this part of Russia, but also retain the cultural and social traditions.It includes and Komi and Yakuts, who breed reindeer.They all live in a small localized area, different activities and are part of a large ethnic divisions.Researchers are constantly talking about the peoples of the North and Siberia, because those lands inhabited by small groups of Russians.

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In 1999, a special national given extra definition.Northern peoples recognized those who live in the territory, where once settled their ancestors have their own language, keeping the tradition of using the same types of food, and fewer than fifty thousand people.In fact, scientists have crossed 30% of the ethnic groups.

In 2000, the first time all of the Arctic Indigenous Peoples made in one official document.The list of 45 famous and to this day ethnic groups.Each of them living on its territory, engaged in certain fisheries, and into contact with the rest of the population of the Russian Federation, as a rule, through trade.However, their cultural characteristics are stored and transmitted as the wealth of their ancestors.

Almost all seventeen of these have no more than 1,500 people in its composition.

peoples of the North are very caring environment.They are trying to master the surrounding nature, inflicting minimal damage.

many of them come in to change the course of history, habitat, but usually at the same time changed their ethnic backgrounds.

earnings

long time the people of the North were only sharing with one another.They gave the excess goods and took the one they needed.Me as goods for daily use, as well as various fertilizers, minerals and so on.

In ancient times, they passed each other even flint, from which to create tools for hunting.

main types of fishing for the majority of these people is:

  • reindeer;
  • fishing;
  • gathering;
  • horticulture.

Many a system of seasonal migration, during which committed raids hunting or trade with other inhabitants of these lands.

Great Migration

peoples of the North have been significantly altered after 10,000 years ago, glaciers began to melt.While this phenomenon is part of the local ethnic group, who used to live in the central or southern part of the country, it migrated to the northern territories.

They can be identified by the language groups:

  • Evens, Dolgan, Evenki, and many other peoples of the Far North are Turkic and Tungus group;
  • Nenets, Nganasan, Enets and Selkup are community Samoyed languages;
  • Yukagirs to Paleosiberian combining all brought their cultures of the peoples of the North and the Far East;
  • Khanty, Mansi and Sami to a separate group of Finno-Ugric languages.

Yukaghir rock paintings have been found in the mountains of the Angara.And now they all live in the northern part of Russia.Many ended up in the Arctic.

Over time, the language has changed, and even the appearance of nomads.Their body has adapted to carry persistent frost.

culture of peoples of the North

culture of each ethnic group is unique and inimitable.Despite the small numbers, the population of ethnic studies ancestral languages, cultural traditions stores.

Each dialect spoken by one or another ethnic group, divided into several different subspecies.

For example, among the Chukchi, there are about five different dialects.Each of which is characteristic of a specific area in which they live.

Folklore

Indigenous People carefully preserve the ancient legends handed down from generation to generation.Their legends can be viewed as a unique cultural phenomenon.Researchers are still recorded all the subjects of the northern peoples to retell stories.With them it is possible to understand what processes occur with these people for many centuries.

traditional holidays observed each year throughout the history of the tribe, more evolved.Song tradition, music and dance - all of them are still preserved by local communities.

material culture

specific patterns on clothing are a sign of separation for every nation.Also, quite often in the traditional dress of northerners appear scenes from their lives, images of their ancestors.You can see the aquatic motifs on the dresses of those ethnic groups that are engaged in fishing as a major fisheries.Images appear in deer herders.

Each of the ethnic groups is characterized by its dwellings built under the place of residence, conditions of work.Nomadic tribes usually erect temporary structures that can be easily disassembled for what would have to move to another location.

As for food, the people of the North have still preserved the traditional way to preserve foods - dry them.This allows us to replace the usual refrigerator.For example, the drying deer meat, fish and a variety of berries, mushrooms, herbs common in most areas of North Russia.

mainly representatives of these ethnic groups are engaged in raw food diet.They do not cook meat or berries, fish or grass, preferring to eat them raw.Naturally, this is possible because the temperature rarely rises above zero.

Religion

the north of Russia was neither Christians nor Muslims, nor anyone else.For this reason, there remain primitive beliefs.It is of great interest to scholars and theologians.Performances of the local population are fundamentally different from that of other nations.

still held in high esteem shamans.These dear people are conduits between the spirit world and the human environment.They act as psychologists, doctors and religious teachers.

According indigenous nature - a living organism.Everything has a soul, and can both help and hurt.It is for this reason that all the peoples of the North worshiped the spirits of animals, forests, mountains and plants.Ancestors deserve special respect.With due respect, they are sure to help their relatives.In addition, they keep the whole experience, which acquired clan during its existence.

Interestingly, the North shamanism has nothing to do with the culture of the Indians.If you draw a parallel, it will be closer to the frightening voodoo.But unlike the latter, the shamans use their knowledge very good.

Background

Many believe that the cradle of the world's population is and the state of the Sumerians of Mesopotamia.It is believed that mankind originated in Egypt.Perhaps the first people began to explore China or India.However, just to assert that no one can.

But there is every reason to believe that Russia also claims the status of one of the oldest states.Northern peoples have lived here even 9000 years ago.Rather, found weapons and everyday objects allow to talk about it.It is possible that older evidence simply has not yet detected.

particular interest in this regard are Yukaghirs.This ethnic group is considered to be the most ancient, and its roots can go to the mythical Hyperboreans.According to another version, they must be regarded as the ancestors of the Chukchi, as their way of life perfectly adapted to the Arctic.Furthermore, in terms of technology, they are far ahead of the rest of the tribes.

If we talk about the youngest minorities of the North - is the pots.This ethnic group was formed only in the mid-19th century, when the Russian tsars began to actively explore the land of Ussuriysk.Assimilation of several different nationalities (Nanai, Udeghes, Chinese), found themselves in isolation has led to the emergence of a new group.