monetary system - a special form, in which the circulation of money in a particular country that has developed over time and approved by law.In Europe, the monetary system developed to 16-17 centuries.
different basic types of monetary systems evolved and developed in different countries at different times.The monetary system itself historically goes two main stages : first - when used as a universal equivalent gold, to perform the functions of money;the second - when the role of gold falls, and introduced into circulation credit money.
elements of the monetary system find: name of the unit of money (in the Russian Federation - the ruble), the types of banknotes, the scale of prices, the order of treatment, and the issue of money, the order of cash flow, the state apparatus to regulate the circulation of money.
separate part of the money - it is a national currency system, which basically serves as a relatively independent phenomenon.
There are different types of monetary systems , peculiar to countries historically.This development in time and spends a change in treatment systems.This concept and the types of monetary systems depend on the form of functioning of money.There are two forms: cash and cash itself (signs of value).The differences of these forms are reduced to the fact that the systems of metallic currency , money functions in the form of coins, and in the systems credit and paper money , money circulates in the form of bank notes, bills, checks, treasury notes.
When metal treatment allocate these types of monetary systems - is monometallism and bimetallism.
Bimetallism - a system in which two of the precious metal (usually gold and silver) is assigned the role of the equivalent of all the goods and values.The coins of the two metals are available on an equal basis.
Varieties of bimetallism are parallel currency system (natural ratio of currency in gold and silver), dual currency (this ratio is determined by the state) and "lame" currency (coins of the two metals are tender, but not on the same basis).Bimetallism long existed in Europe and in Russia.But the operation of two metals contrary to the nature of money and led to price fluctuations.As a result, the double standard of value has been eliminated.There were conditions of transition to monometallism.
monometallism - such a system of treatment, when only one metal can serve as a universal equivalent.It draws a coin (either gold or silver), and other tokens of value, which are on the metal exchanges.Golden monometallism established for the first time in England in the late 18th century.Silver monometallism in Russia came in 1843.
Modern types of monetary systems are characterized by the loss of money due to the metal;the dominance of credit money, no small change for precious metals, which are essentially similar to the paper;development of non-cash operations and the reduction of cash circulation;inflation;state control over the state of monetary circulation.
banknotes today have a credit nature: produced by the growth of gold and types of reserves are intended for lending sectors of the economy, subject to the laws of paper money circulation.
condition monetary system depends on the processes of reproduction, for which it affects, accelerating or restraining it.Paper money and credit in today's society are monopolized by the state.The central bank aims to compensate for the lack of money sometimes by increasing the money supply due to the additional issue of tokens of value.
monetary system of the Russian Federation basic monetary unit recognizes the ruble.Billing force in the Russian Federation have the kinds of money as bank notes (bills) and coins from metal.Payments may make in cash and non-cash form.