In the middle of the XVI century with particular acuteness Russia waged a struggle with his aggressive neighbor - the Kazan Khanate.For warfare required a reliable base of support, and to this end, in 1551, shortly before the capture of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible, was founded by the city-fortress of Sviyazhsk.Location chosen for him at the mouth of the river Sviyaga.Soon the city expanded and became a district center and in 1555 there was founded a monastic cloister, which later became known as the Dormition Monastery Sviazhsky.
of Kazan diocese and monastery
Founded monastery marked another important event in the life of the region - the establishment of the Kazan diocese.This was made possible thanks to the glorious victories of Russian arms, put an end to the domination of the Tatar khans on the banks of the Volga.In this regard, to found a monastery had become the center of spiritual, educational and missionary activities.His envoys for two centuries carried the light of Orthodoxy throughout the Middle Volga region.
founder of the monastery and its first abbot was Archimandrite German (Sadyrov Field).Under his rule the monastery grew and gained strength.The times then were very turbulent.Broken near Kazan Tatars scattered throughout the area, and by putting them into a gang raided the surrounding villages.Not once had and settlers in the cloister, interrupted prayer, to take up arms.
great ascetic, Archimandrite German
very remarkable way of pastoral ministry, passed Archimandrite Herman.Leaving from the time he founded a monastery Sviazhsky, he led all the Kazan diocese, becoming its second archbishop.In 1566, at the behest of Ivan the Terrible, he arrived in Moscow, where he was asked to go up to the Moscow metropolitan department instead fallen into disfavor royal Metropolitan Philip.
However, on such a high honor, and he refused, taking sides with the disgraced bishop began to denounce the iniquities committed by the tsarist henchmen.Blocked from the palace soon, Archimandrite finished his earthly course in 1567.The circumstances of his death still remain unclear.According to one version he was killed, and on the other - died during an epidemic of plague.
After his death, the first abbot of the monastery was glorified among the saints, and in 1592 his relics were the main shrine of the monastery.In the books of the Assumption Cathedral, where they rested, you could read a lot of records, testified about the miracles revealed them through the prayers of the parishioners and the monks themselves.
heyday of the monastery should be considered XVI-XVIII centuries.During these two centuries Sviazhsky monastery is the richest in the whole Middle Volga and was even among the twenty most prosperous in Russia.No wonder it is considered Archimandrite seventh by value in the state.On the grounds of the monastery belonging to the middle of the XVIII century, they lived and worked 7,200 male farmers.As much of the rest belonged to the monasteries of the Kazan diocese together.
and such curious detail: Sviazhsky monastery had typography, which began to publish religious books before it began to do in Moscow pioneer Ivan Fyodorov.Their products in a variety of expenses for the country.When in 1764 in the Russian Empire was held monastic reform Sviazhsky the Holy Dormition Monastery was added to the first class, which is the highest.This honor was he alone of all the monasteries of the Kazan diocese.Only forty-two years later, a similar contrast deserved Virgin Monastery in Kazan.
era of secularization of church lands
With the above-mentioned reforms undertaken by Catherine II, began to decline before a rich and flourishing monastery.Largely played the role of and observe in this period of economic downturn town Sviyazhsk and the consequent impoverishment of the population.However, the main reason was the government pursued the secularization of monastic lands.
In the era of his reign, Catherine II pursued a policy aimed at depriving the church the possibility of influence on state affairs.One way to achieve this was to reduce the economic living standards of temples and monasteries.For this purpose, February 24, 1764 was issued a manifesto that all church lands passed into state ownership.
years of decline and the beginning of the revolution the monastery
Deprived thus the main items of income, Sviyazhsk Dormition Monastery gradually began to take their positions.Suffice it to say that the number of its inhabitants, once over a hundred monks and novices, the beginning of XX century, was reduced to twenty-five, and the level of revenue was lower than in other monasteries of the Kazan diocese.
years following the Revolution, brought with them a lot of trouble the whole Russian Orthodox Church.Was no exception Sviazhsky monastery.His last rector of Bishop Ambrose (beeps) fell victim to a disorderly crowd of soldiers.Many years later, when the country finally came to her senses by the atheistic madness, its canonized, and the world knew him as a new martyr Ambrose.
period atheistic orgy
During the rule of the godless government town Sviyazhsk became a solid camp area.Monastery building and the surrounding temples were looted them, and cancer with imperishable relics of St. Herman opened and desecrated.In the monastery for many years placed the colony for juvenile delinquents, the psychiatric hospital.On top of the troubles, after the construction of the Kuibyshev Reservoir large area adjacent to the city was flooded, and Sviyazhsk become an island.
Only with the advent of modern times, when the church began to return illegally taken away from her property, all the buildings, which included Sviazhsky monastery was returned to believers.The only exception was a small portion, which became part of the Museum.This was fertile ground for the revival of the city.The restored temples resumed once interrupted church services and then swam over the river Sviyaga monastery bells ringing.
Sviazhsky Holy Assumption Monastery is famous for its main attraction - the old St. Nicholas Church.She's the same age as most of the monastery and its construction dates back to 1756 year.Erect it of hewn limestone gang Pskov masters headed by Ivan Shiryaev.A year later it was added to the tower height of 43 meters.The church building is a cell, where once lived the first abbot of the monastery - the Reverend Herman.From the memoirs of former inhabitants of the monastery it is known that even before the revolution it kept his stuff.
The nearby Cathedral of the Assumption was built only five years later, St. Nicholas Church.Above it worked the same master from Pskov.Some changes had been made in the middle of the next century.To this was added the refectory of the octagonal drum and a cylinder section.Previously had helmet-shaped dome was replaced by a more elegant, in the style of Ukrainian Baroque.More hundred years later the building was attached porch.
However, the main feature of the church is preserved in it fresco times of Ivan the Terrible.This curiosity has still only one place - in the cathedral on the territory of the Holy Transfiguration Monastery in Yaroslavl.Critics point out that the wall paintings of this period are extremely rare.
there earlier samples have written a century later, but the XVI century has left us in this regard is very meager inheritance.In addition to its historical and artistic value are the frescoes of the cathedral, and one characteristic, a characteristic feature of them: on the west wall, where taken to represent hell with all its attributes, in the Cathedral of the Assumption painted scenes of heaven, which in itself creates a positive mood in the viewer.
Women's Compound Sviyazhsky monastery
The city, in addition to the Monastery, which was discussed, was located another - female Sviazhsky John the Baptist monastery.He was also founded in the late XVI century.It is located in the heart of Sviyazhsk in Cathedral Square.Soon, however, he had to endure a series of strong fire, and the sisters moved to another place, by giving them the room that belonged to the abolished before the Trinity-Sergius Monastery.
Today, the convent is not revived in its present form, and is only a woman's St. John the Baptist monastery courtyard Sviyazhsky male.However, all church services are conducted in it to the extent prescribed by the church charter.Besides, it does not stop the restoration of residential buildings and the temple.Life returned to the ancient monastery, and its hospitable walls waiting for anyone who wants to come and immerse yourself in the fascinating world of Orthodox antiquities.