to talk about the theory of temperament, to start with the understanding of the word.Temperamentum (Latin.) - The normal ratio of several psychological characteristics or a set of individual personality traits associated with behavioral, dynamic properties of nature.It characterizes the higher nervous activity of the body.
On this subject there are several studies of different authors, but all of them are in any way linked to or based on the theory of temperament developed by Hippocrates.He called it "humoral" (from the Latin. "Humors" - liquid).Hippocrates linked temperament with the biological properties of the fluid prevailing in the body:
- bile (hall): Irritability, lively, explosive mood is changing rapidly - it is choleric;
- mucus (phlegm): calm, phlegmatic, even-tempered, hard-switches attention - this is phlegmatic;
- blood (Sangvis): easy to endure hardship, cheerful, optimistic, sociable - a sanguine;
- black bile (chalk hall): shy, prone to sadness, reserved, sensitive to the troubles - is melancholic.
American and European view of science
Similar temperament theory established German E. Kretschmer and W. Sheldon American.According to Kretschmer (constitutional theory), the character and propensity to mental illness in humans related to the structure of the human body:
- Leptosomatik (brittle) - shizotemichesky type.Tend to the rapid change of emotions, closed and stubborn.
- Picnic (thick) - tsiklotemichesky type (cyclothem - manic depression).It is easy to contact, realist, prone to mood swings.
- Athletic (Athletic) - iksotemichesky type (iksotemiya - epilepsy).Quiet, no different flexible thinking.
- Displastik (malformed) - a mixed type of temperament.
W. Sheldon identified three types, depending on the temperament of the body structure:
- tserebrotonik: Kretschmer from this leptosomatik and Hippocrates - melancholic;
- somatotonik: accordingly, athletic, choleric;
- vistserotonik: picnic and sanguine.
This theory though, and was popular among specialists in this field, but in the future relationship between the structure of the body and mental illness was considered to be unproven.
closer to reality
All temperament theory in psychology, having sufficient accuracy in the definitions, yet can not be considered an absolute dogma.Just because in real life it is possible to mix types, deviations from the approved standards.
AIPavlov in the study of the nervous system types start from the fact that the processes of excitation and inhibition of its place everyone on an individual scenario.Depending on their speed, he identified four types:
- moving: a lively, strong (of Hippocrates - choleric);
- weak: unbalanced (melancholy);
- calm: sedentary (phlegmatic);
- unrestrained: strong, unbalanced (sanguine).
As you can see, all the basic theory of temperament somehow intersect with the theory of Hippocrates.The essence is one, just different names.At the same time we must remember that real life does not fit into any theory of temperament, one hundred percent.You can only talk about the laws.