During the Civil War, white and red all means sought to achieve power and the complete destruction of the enemy.The confrontation was not only at the front, but also in many other aspects, including the economic sector.Before we will analyze the economic policies of white and red in the Civil War, it is necessary to examine the main differences between the two ideologies, which led to a confrontation between the fratricidal war.
main aspects of the economy red
Red did not recognize private property, defended the belief that all people should be equal in both legal and social terms.For red king was not the authority, the wealth, and they despised the intelligentsia and the working class, in their opinion, had to be the leading structure of the state.Religion is the opium of red felt for the people.Churches were destroyed, exterminated mercilessly believers, atheists have been held in high esteem.
For white emperor's father, of course, was the authority, imperial power - the basis
White did not imagine Russia without faith.Orthodoxy - the cornerstone.That it was based culture, identity and prosperity of the nation.
side comparison ideologies
could not lead to confrontation polar politics of red and white.The table clearly shows the main differences:
|"Praise the king! Glory to the Emperor!"||"Down with the king! All power to the Soviets"|
|God-fearing, revered clergymen||"Religion - the opium of the people"|
|Russia one and indivisible||Proclamation iternatsionalizma|
|right to private property||"Land - the peasants, factories - workers "|
social, cultural and economic policy of the white and red had its supporters and ardent enemies.The country is divided.Half supported the red, the other - white.
Policy whites during the Civil War
Denikin dreamed of the day when Russia will again become great and indivisible.General believed that the Bolsheviks should fight to the end and eventually destroy them completely.When it adopted the "Declaration", which is kept for the owners of the right to land, as well as provides for the interests of working people.Denikin quashed the decree of the Provisional Government of the grain monopoly, and developed a plan for "Land law" according to which a farmer could buy land from the landowner.
priority in economic policy Kolchak was allotment of land and land-hungry peasants, those peasants who have no land at all.Kolchak held that the seizure of property in red - is arbitrary and looting.All the loot should be returned to the owners - the employers, landlords.
Wrangell created political reform, according to which limit large landholdings, increased allotments for the middle peasants and farmers provides for industrial goods.
and Denikin and Wrangel and Kolchak canceled Bolshevik "Decree on Land", but, as history shows, have not been able to come up with a decent alternative.Nonviable economic reforms white regime is the fragility of these governments.If not for economic and military assistance to Allied, the white regimes have fallen much earlier.
Policy Reds during the Civil War
Reds during the Civil War took "Decree on Land", which canceled the right to private ownership of land, which, to put it mildly, did not like the landowners, but was joyful news tothe common people.Naturally, landless peasants and workers of any reform of Denikin or Kolchak and Wrangel innovations were not so welcome and promising, as the decree of the Bolsheviks.
Bolsheviks actively pursued a policy of "war communism", according to which the Soviet government embarked on a full nationalization of the economy.Nationalization is the transition of the economy from private hands to the state.Also it introduced a monopoly on foreign trade.It was nationalized fleet.Partnership, business leaders suddenly lost property.The Bolsheviks sought to centralize the management of most of the Russian economy.
Many innovations are not like ordinary people.One of these innovations was unpleasant introduction of compulsory labor service, which prohibit unauthorized switching to a new job, as well as absenteeism.They were introduced "Saturday" and "Sundays" - the system of unpaid labor, mandatory for all.
Food Bolshevik dictatorship
Bolsheviks realized a monopoly on bread, which at one time even suggested the Provisional Government.It was introduced control by the Soviet government for the rural bourgeoisie, who hid grain stocks.Many historians point out that it was a necessary temporary measure, because after the revolution the country lay in ruins, and such a redistribution would help to survive in the lean years.However, serious excesses in the field have led to the mass expropriation of food supplies in rural areas, leading to widespread famine and extremely high mortality.
Thus, serious conflicts had economic policies of white and red.Comparison of the main aspects is given in the table:
|«Land Law» Denikin called for allotment of land land-hungry and landless peasants||«Decree on Land" abolished private ownership of land|
|returnproperty landlords, factory owners||full nationalization policy of "war communism"|
|reforms Wrangel defended the interests of mostly middle class||social protection of the poor|
|abolition of the grain monopoly Bolsheviks||food dictatorship|
AsThe table shows that the economic policy of white and red was the opposite.
Cons both directions
Policy of white and red in the Civil War was radically different.Nevertheless, none of them was not 100% effective.Each strategic direction had its minuses.
«War Communism" was criticized even by the Communists.After the adoption of this policy, the Bolsheviks were expecting an unprecedented growth of the economy, but in reality everything was different.All solutions are economically illiterate, resulting in reduced productivity, people are starving, and many farmers have not seen an incentive to recycle.Reduced industrial production, there has been a decline in agriculture.In the financial sector creates hyperinflation, which was not even under the tsar and the Provisional Government.People mowed hunger.
big drawback white modes is their inability to carry out a coherent land policy.No Wrangell nor Denikin or Kolchak had not worked out a law that would support the masses in the face of the workers and peasants.In addition, the white fragility of power did not allow them to fully realize their plans for the development of the state economy.