Literary language is a form of existence nedialektnuyu (subsystem) of the national language, is characterized by certain features.These include the codification, regulatory, stylistic differentiation, multifunctionality, and high prestige in the community, among its speakers.
In this article we look at the signs of the literary language, its functions, and this concept, its properties and definition.
literary language is the main tool that caters to the communication needs of the social environment.He is opposed to another, uncodified subsystems - dialects, urban vernacular (in other words - urban Koine), as well as social and professional jargon.
two ways of defining the concept of
literary language as a concept can be defined on a linguistic properties that are inherent in this subsystem of a national language, as well as through delimitation of the totality of the people who are carriers of this subsystem, its separation from the total weight of the speakersin that language.First - Linguistic method for determining, and the second - the sociological.
literary language in terms of Vinogradov
terms of Vinogradov, a literary language is the common language in which there is written a certain people or a few of them.That is, it includes the language of all cultural manifestations, expressed most often in writing, but sometimes orally, as well as literature, journalism, science, writing, communication and community, school, official-business documents.Therefore different forms it, both orally and in writing, spoken-book.
Various terms related to this concept
term is associated in its origin with a term such as "literature" and in the etymological sense means that it is based on "letter", that is, on the letter.Accordingly, it is written language.Indeed, if we look at the language of the Middle Ages, we will only talk about the written language, corpus, with a literary purpose.Other features of literary language derived from this definition by the term, therefore, seem clear and logical.
laminated on the subject varied terms are, in fact, an attempt to get out of the deadlock formal logic: the conceptual signs of belonging worshiped for a non-existent object, and he is determined through them.Signs of literary language will be considered by us below.
literary language as a function of national
Of the many definitions of the most acceptable is definition of its function as the national language.That is literary - it is only a kind of use of the Russian language, and not a separate, stand-alone language.This understanding is in line with the scientific tradition, it is determined by the historical approach to the analysis of literary language.At the same time this interpretation explains the presence and the development of different spheres of "cultural speaking" as is justified by the existence of a literary language as a term.In fact, the latter is the only form of existence of national (national) language, not only speech in the narrow sense of the word.Over time, the colloquial form superseded increasingly developing "cultural", the selection of linguistic forms as the structure of the language has evolved, and the main content of the historical process.
The main features of literary language will be discussed below.Now let's say a few words about language functions.
Polyfunctionality Russian language
concept and features of literary language are derived from its functions.Any sufficiently developed language has two main varieties for the purpose of use: live spoken language and literary language.Conversational speech we master since childhood.The development of the second species occurs continuously throughout life and human development, until his old age.
Russian language today is multi-functional, that is used in many different spheres of human activity.Functionally demarcated and means of literary language (grammar, vocabulary).Using language means depends on the type of communication.In the literary language (signs of Russian literary language, you will find below), there are two basic functional types: book and conversation.Accordingly, the book stand and spoken language.In the speech, there are three styles of pronunciation: Elementary, neutral and complete.
main property characterizing the literary language - the ability to store the text, and therefore serve as a means of communication between different generations.
its many functions, as well as signs, norms of the literary language, they are more complicated with the development of society.
Leading literary language
Other species observed in the national language (social and territorial dialects, colloquialisms, jargon), it is the standard language has always played a major role.He embodies the best ways for the names of objects and concepts, expression of emotions and thoughts.There is continuous interaction between it and other varieties of language, colloquial.Colloquially it is manifested most clearly.
Thus, the literary language is the basis of our culture of speech, as well as a higher form of existence of the national language.It is used in the media, education, literature, and culture.It serves various spheres of human activity: science, politics, official-business communication, law, international, domestic communication, television, print and radio.
Signs literary language
Since we understand by the term.We now note the main features of literary language.This stability (ie stability), treated (because this is the language that has been treated by various masters words: scientists, poets, writers, public figures), a must for all people who are native speakers, the presence of certain functional styles, as well as normalization.Here are the most important features of the literary language.
Normalization Normalization is fairly certain way of expression that reflects the historically specific patterns of development of the literary language.This feature is based on the language of the system, secured the best examples of literary works.Normed way of expressing a preference educated part of the population.As a set of rules for the use of certain words, the rule is necessary to preserve the integrity of national and comprehensible language, in order to transmit information from generation to generation.If it did not exist in the language might occur such changes, resulting in living in different parts of the country people have ceased to understand each other.
treated and codification
signs of literary language are also treated and codification.Treated is a result of the selection and targeting, all the best that is in him.Tackling this is carried out through use of the national language, as a result of research carried out by public figures, scientists and linguists.
codification indicates tightness of its norms in the scientific literature.It is expressed in the presence of corresponding grammatical dictionaries and other books, which contain rules on how to use the language.
These features also literary language is very important.
Symptom stylistic diversity implies the presence of many functional styles.
Literary language is also common and is characterized by the prevalence, the custom, use and possibilities of the language system.
We reviewed the main features of Russian literary language.One of the main tasks of speech culture is to protect it, as well as its regulations, as a literary language linguistically united the entire nation.The main role in creating it always belongs to the advanced part of the population.
What should be the standard language?
Certainly the literary language should be generally understood as it should be able to perceive all members of society.He should be so developed, to be able to serve the main areas of human activity.It is important to observe in a speech lexical, grammatical, and pronouncing rules aktsentologicheskie language.Therefore, a very serious challenge for linguists, is the consideration of any new that appears in the literary language, from the perspective of its compliance with the general trends of linguistic development, as well as the optimal functional conditions.
The more precise and correct it, than it becomes more affordable for understanding what it beautiful and expressive, the stronger the effect on the reader or listener.To express beautifully and correctly, it is necessary to observe certain logical laws (conclusiveness sequence) as well as standards of our literary language, unity of style, take care of euphony, to avoid repetition.
main features of the pronunciation of Russian literary language developed on the basis of the Central Russian dialects, their phonetics.Today, under the pressure normalized, the literary dialects destroyed.